Articles | Volume 16, issue 5
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3279–3288, 2016
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-3279-2016
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3279–3288, 2016
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-3279-2016

Research article 14 Mar 2016

Research article | 14 Mar 2016

Semi-annual oscillation (SAO) of the nighttime ionospheric D region as detected through ground-based VLF receivers

Israel Silber et al.

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Short summary
We report for the first time that the semi-annual oscillation (SAO) is one of the dominant oscillations in the nighttime lower ionosphere, using ground-based measurements of VLF signals reflected off the lower part of the ionosphere. We conclude that the origins of this oscillation are oscillatory changes of the D region's electrical characteristics, driven by NOx transport from the lower thermosphere. This oscillation should be considered in lower ionospheric and VLF wave propagation models.
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