Trajectory model simulations of ozone (O3) and carbon monoxide (CO) in the lower stratosphere
Abstract. A domain-filling, forward trajectory model originally developed for simulating stratospheric water vapor is used to simulate ozone (O3) and carbon monoxide (CO) in the lower stratosphere. Trajectories are initialized in the upper troposphere, and the circulation is based on reanalysis wind fields. In addition, chemical production and loss rates along trajectories are included using calculations from the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM). The trajectory model results show good overall agreement with satellite observations from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) and the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) in terms of spatial structure and seasonal variability. The trajectory model results also agree well with the Eulerian WACCM simulations. Analysis of the simulated tracers shows that seasonal variations in tropical upwelling exerts strong influence on O3 and CO in the tropical lower stratosphere, and the coupled seasonal cycles provide a useful test of the transport simulations. Interannual variations in the tracers are also closely coupled to changes in upwelling, and the trajectory model can accurately capture and explain observed changes during 2005–2011. This demonstrates the importance of variability in tropical upwelling in forcing chemical changes in the tropical lower stratosphere.