Articles | Volume 14, issue 1
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 317–398, 2014

Special issue: Coupled chemistry–meteorology modelling: status and...

Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 317–398, 2014

Review article 10 Jan 2014

Review article | 10 Jan 2014

Online coupled regional meteorology chemistry models in Europe: current status and prospects

A. Baklanov1, K. Schlünzen2, P. Suppan3, J. Baldasano4, D. Brunner5, S. Aksoyoglu6, G. Carmichael7, J. Douros8, J. Flemming9, R. Forkel3, S. Galmarini10, M. Gauss11, G. Grell12, M. Hirtl13, S. Joffre14, O. Jorba4, E. Kaas15, M. Kaasik16, G. Kallos17, X. Kong18, U. Korsholm1, A. Kurganskiy19, J. Kushta17, U. Lohmann20, A. Mahura1, A. Manders-Groot21, A. Maurizi22, N. Moussiopoulos8, S. T. Rao23, N. Savage24, C. Seigneur25, R. S. Sokhi18, E. Solazzo10, S. Solomos17, B. Sørensen15, G. Tsegas8, E. Vignati10, B. Vogel26, and Y. Zhang27 A. Baklanov et al.
  • 1Danish Meteorological Institute, Copenhagen, Denmark
  • 2Meteorological Institute, University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
  • 3Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany
  • 4Barcelona Supercomputing Center, Barcelona, Spain
  • 5Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Dübendorf, Switzerland
  • 6Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen, Switzerland
  • 7Center for Global and Regional Environmental Research, University of Iowa, USA
  • 8Aristotle University, Thessaloniki, Greece
  • 9European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Reading, UK
  • 10European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Ispra, Italy
  • 11Norwegian Meteorological Institute, Bergen, Norway
  • 12NOAA/ESRL, Boulder, Colorado, USA
  • 13Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamic, Vienna, Austria
  • 14Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland
  • 15Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
  • 16University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia
  • 17University of Athens, Athens, Greece
  • 18Centre for Atmospheric and Instrumentation Research, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, UK
  • 19Russian State Hydrometeorological University, St.-Petersburg, Russia
  • 20Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science, ETH, Zurich, Switzerland
  • 21TNO, Utrecht, the Netherlands
  • 22Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, Italian National Research Council, Bologna, Italy
  • 23US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA
  • 24Met Office, Exeter, UK
  • 25CEREA, Joint laboratory École des Ponts ParisTech/EDF R&D, Université Paris-Est, Marne-la-Vallée, France
  • 26Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany
  • 27North Carolina State University, Raleigh, USA

Abstract. Online coupled mesoscale meteorology atmospheric chemistry models have undergone a rapid evolution in recent years. Although mainly developed by the air quality modelling community, these models are also of interest for numerical weather prediction and regional climate modelling as they can consider not only the effects of meteorology on air quality, but also the potentially important effects of atmospheric composition on weather. Two ways of online coupling can be distinguished: online integrated and online access coupling. Online integrated models simulate meteorology and chemistry over the same grid in one model using one main time step for integration. Online access models use independent meteorology and chemistry modules that might even have different grids, but exchange meteorology and chemistry data on a regular and frequent basis. This article offers a comprehensive review of the current research status of online coupled meteorology and atmospheric chemistry modelling within Europe. Eighteen regional online coupled models developed or being used in Europe are described and compared. Topics discussed include a survey of processes relevant to the interactions between atmospheric physics, dynamics and composition; a brief overview of existing online mesoscale models and European model developments; an analysis on how feedback processes are treated in these models; numerical issues associated with coupled models; and several case studies and model performance evaluation methods. Finally, this article highlights selected scientific issues and emerging challenges that require proper consideration to improve the reliability and usability of these models for the three scientific communities: air quality, numerical meteorology modelling (including weather prediction) and climate modelling. This review will be of particular interest to model developers and users in all three fields as it presents a synthesis of scientific progress and provides recommendations for future research directions and priorities in the development, application and evaluation of online coupled models.

Final-revised paper