Articles | Volume 11, issue 24
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 13061–13143, 2011

Special issue: European Integrated Project on Aerosol-Cloud-Climate and Air...

Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 13061–13143, 2011

Review article 21 Dec 2011

Review article | 21 Dec 2011

General overview: European Integrated project on Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality interactions (EUCAARI) – integrating aerosol research from nano to global scales

M. Kulmala1, A. Asmi1, H. K. Lappalainen1,2, U. Baltensperger3, J.-L. Brenguier4, M. C. Facchini5, H.-C. Hansson6, Ø. Hov7, C. D. O'Dowd8, U. Pöschl9, A. Wiedensohler10, R. Boers11, O. Boucher12,*, G. de Leeuw1,2,13, H. A. C. Denier van der Gon13, J. Feichter14, R. Krejci6, P. Laj15, H. Lihavainen2, U. Lohmann16, G. McFiggans17, T. Mentel18, C. Pilinis19, I. Riipinen1,36, M. Schulz7,20, A. Stohl21, E. Swietlicki22, E. Vignati23, C. Alves25, M. Amann24, M. Ammann59, S. Arabas26, P. Artaxo27, H. Baars10, D. C. S. Beddows28, R. Bergström29, J. P. Beukes30, M. Bilde31, J. F. Burkhart21, F. Canonaco3, S. L. Clegg32, H. Coe17, S. Crumeyrolle33, B. D'Anna34, S. Decesari5, S. Gilardoni23, M. Fischer35, A. M. Fjaeraa21, C. Fountoukis36, C. George34, L. Gomes4, P. Halloran12, T. Hamburger37, R. M. Harrison28, H. Herrmann10, T. Hoffmann38, C. Hoose39, M. Hu40, A. Hyvärinen2, U. Hõrrak41, Y. Iinuma10, T. Iversen7, M. Josipovic30, M. Kanakidou42, A. Kiendler-Scharr18, A. Kirkevåg7, G. Kiss43, Z. Klimont24, P. Kolmonen2, M. Komppula44, J.-E. Kristjánsson45, L. Laakso1,2,30, A. Laaksonen2,46, L. Labonnote47, V. A. Lanz3, K. E. J. Lehtinen44,46, L. V. Rizzo27, R. Makkonen1, H. E. Manninen1, G. McMeeking17, J. Merikanto1, A. Minikin37, S. Mirme35, W. T. Morgan17, E. Nemitz48, D. O'Donnell14, T. S. Panwar49, H. Pawlowska26, A. Petzold37, J. J. Pienaar30, C. Pio25, C. Plass-Duelmer50, A. S. H. Prévôt3, S. Pryor51, C. L. Reddington52, G. Roberts11, D. Rosenfeld53, J. Schwarz54, Ø. Seland7, K. Sellegri55, X. J. Shen56, M. Shiraiwa9, H. Siebert10, B. Sierau16, D. Simpson7,60, J. Y. Sun56, D. Topping17, P. Tunved6, P. Vaattovaara46, V. Vakkari1, J. P. Veefkind11, A. Visschedijk13, H. Vuollekoski1, R. Vuolo20, B. Wehner10, J. Wildt18, S. Woodward12, D. R. Worsnop1,2,57, G.-J. van Zadelhoff11, A. A. Zardini31,58, K. Zhang14, P. G. van Zyl30, V.-M. Kerminen2, K. S Carslaw52, and S. N. Pandis36 M. Kulmala et al.
  • 1Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, 00014 Helsinki, Finland
  • 2Finnish Meteorological Institute, Research and Development, 00101 Helsinki, Finland
  • 3Paul Scherrer Institut, Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry, Villigen PSI, Switzerland
  • 4French Meteorological Service, 31057 Toulouse, France
  • 5Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate (ISAC), National Research Council (CNR), Bologna, Italy
  • 6Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden
  • 7Norwegian Meteorological Institute, 0313 Oslo, Norway
  • 8School of Physics & Centre for Climate and Air Pollution Studies, Environmental Change Institute, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland
  • 9Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz, Germany
  • 10Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research, 04318 Leipzig, Germany
  • 11Earth Observation and Climate Department/Climate and Seismology Sector, KNMI, The Netherlands
  • 12Met Office Hadley Centre, Fitzroy Road, Exeter, Devon, EX1 3PB, UK
  • 13TNO Built Environment and Geosciences, Utrecht, The Netherlands
  • 14Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg, Germany
  • 15Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Géophysique de l'Environnement (LGGE), CNRS/University of Grenoble, Grenoble, France
  • 16Institute of Atmospheric and Climate Science, ETH Zurich, Switzerland
  • 17School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK
  • 18Institut fuer Energie- und Klimaforschung – Troposphaere, Forschungszentrum GmbH Jülich, 52425 Jülich, Germany
  • 19Department of Environment, University of the Aegean, Mytilene, Greece
  • 20Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement, Gif-sur-Yvette, France
  • 21NILU, Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Kjeller, Norway
  • 22Division of Nuclear Physics, Lund University, P.O. Box 118, 22100 Lund, Sweden
  • 23European Commission, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Climate Change and Air Quality Unit, Ispra, Italy
  • 24IIASA, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria
  • 25CESAM & Department of Environment, University of Aveiro, Portugal
  • 26Institute of Geophysics, Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland
  • 27Institute of Physics University of São Paulo Rua do Matão, Travessa R, 187 CEP05508-090, Sao Paulo, Brazil
  • 28University of Birmingham, Division of Environmental Health and Risk Management, Birmingham, UK
  • 29Department of Chemistry, University of Gothenburg, 412 96 Gothenburg, Sweden
  • 30School of Physical and Chemical Sciences, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa
  • 31Department of Chemistry, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
  • 32School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK
  • 33Laboratoire de Météorologie Physique, Université Blaise Pascal, Clermont-Ferrand, France
  • 34CNRS, UMR5256, IRCELYON, Institut de recherches sur la catalyse et l'environnement de Lyon, Villeurbanne, Université de Lyon, Lyon, 69626, France
  • 35Airel Ltd, Tähe 4, 51010 Tartu, Estonia
  • 36Institute of Chemical Engineering and High Temperature Chemical Processes (ICE-HT), Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas (FORTH), Patras, 26504, Greece
  • 37Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), Institute of Physics of Atmosphere, Oberpfaffenhofen, 82234 Wessling, Germany
  • 38Institut für Anorganische und Analytische Chemie, Johannes Gutenberg-University, Mainz, Germany
  • 39Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe, Germany
  • 40State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control (Peking University), College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing, 100871, China
  • 41Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, 18 Ülikooli St., Tartu, 50090, Estonia
  • 42Environmental Chemical Processes Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Crete, 71003, P.O. Box 2208, Heraklion, Greece
  • 43Air Chemistry Group of Hungarian Academy of Sciences, University of Pannonia, P.O. Box 158, 8201 Veszprém, Hungary
  • 44Finnish Meteorological Institute, Kuopio Unit, 70211 Kuopio, Finland
  • 45Department of Geosciences, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway
  • 46University of Eastern Finland, Dept. Applied Physics, POB 1627, 70211 Kuopio, Finland
  • 47Laboratoire d'Optique Atmosphérique – Université des Sciences et Technologies de Lille/CNRS, Villeneuve d'Ascq Cedex, France
  • 48Centre for Ecology & Hydrology Bush Estate, Penicuik, Midlothian, EH26 0QB, UK
  • 49TERI Darbari Seth Block IHC complex Lodhi Road, New Delhi, 110003, India
  • 50Hohenpeissenberg Meteorological Observatory, Deutscher Wetterdienst, Germany
  • 51Risø National Laboratory Fredriksborgvej 399, P.O. Box 49, 4000 Roskilde, Denmark
  • 52University of Leeds, School of Earth and Environment, Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK
  • 53Institute of Earth Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel
  • 54Institute of Chemical Process Fundamentals AS CR, Rozvojova 135, Prague, Czech Republic
  • 55Laboratoire de Météorologie Physique, UMR6016, CNRS/University of Clermont-Ferrand, Clermont-Ferrand, France
  • 56Key Laboratory for Atmospheric Chemistry, CMA Centre for Atmosphere Watch and Services, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing 100081, China
  • 57Aerodyne Research, Inc. 45 Manning Rd, Billerica, MA 0182, USA
  • 58Institute for Energy, Sustainable Transport Unit, JRC-European Commission, 21027 Ispra (Va), Italy
  • 59Paul Scherrer Institut, Laboratory of Radiochemistry and Environmental Chemistry, Switzerland
  • 60Dept. Earth & Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden
  • *now at: Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique, IPSL/CNRS, Tour 45-55, Université P. et M. Curie, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05, France

Abstract. In this paper we describe and summarize the main achievements of the European Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality Interactions project (EUCAARI). EUCAARI started on 1 January 2007 and ended on 31 December 2010 leaving a rich legacy including: (a) a comprehensive database with a year of observations of the physical, chemical and optical properties of aerosol particles over Europe, (b) comprehensive aerosol measurements in four developing countries, (c) a database of airborne measurements of aerosols and clouds over Europe during May 2008, (d) comprehensive modeling tools to study aerosol processes fron nano to global scale and their effects on climate and air quality. In addition a new Pan-European aerosol emissions inventory was developed and evaluated, a new cluster spectrometer was built and tested in the field and several new aerosol parameterizations and computations modules for chemical transport and global climate models were developed and evaluated. These achievements and related studies have substantially improved our understanding and reduced the uncertainties of aerosol radiative forcing and air quality-climate interactions. The EUCAARI results can be utilized in European and global environmental policy to assess the aerosol impacts and the corresponding abatement strategies.

Final-revised paper