Simultaneous coastal measurements of ozone deposition fluxes and iodine-mediated particle emission fluxes with subsequent CCN formation
Abstract. Here we present the first observations of simultaneous ozone deposition fluxes and ultrafine particle emission fluxes over an extensive infra-littoral zone. Fluxes were measured by the eddy covariance technique at the Station Biologique de Roscoff, on the coast of Brittany, north-west France. This site overlooks a very wide (3 km) littoral zone controlled by very deep tides (9.6 m) exposing extensive macroalgae beds available for significant iodine mediated photochemical production of ultrafine particles. The aspect at the Station Biologique de Roscoff provides an extensive and relatively flat, uniform fetch within which micrometeorological techniques may be utilized to study links between ozone deposition to macroalgae (and sea water) and ultrafine particle production.
Ozone deposition to seawater at high tide was significantly slower (vd[O3]=0.302±0.095 mm s−1) than low tidal deposition. A statistically significant difference in the deposition velocities to macroalgae at low tide was observed between night time (vd[O3]=1.00±0.10 mm s−1) and daytime (vd[O3]=2.05±0.16 mm s−1) when ultrafine particle formation results in apparent particle emission. Very high emission fluxes of ultrafine particles were observed during daytime periods at low tides ranging from 50 000 particles cm−2 s−1 to greater than 200 000 particles cm−2 s−1 during some of the lowest tides. These emission fluxes exhibited a significant relationship with particle number concentrations comparable with previous observations at another location. Apparent particle growth rates were estimated to be in the range 17–150 nm h−1 for particles in the size range 3–10 nm. Under certain conditions, particle growth may be inferred to continue to greater than 120 nm over tens of hours; sizes at which they may readily behave as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) under reasonable supersaturations that may be expected to pertain at the top of the marine boundary layer. These results link direct depositional loss and photochemical destruction of ozone to the formation of particles and hence CCN from macroalgal emissions at a coastal location.