21 Mar 2022
21 Mar 2022
Status: this preprint is currently under review for the journal ACP.

How volcanic eruption latitudes diversify surface climate responses

Seungmok Paik1, Seung-Ki Min2,3, Seok-Woo Son4, Soon-Il An1,2,5, Jong-Seong Kug2,3, and Sang-Wook Yeh6 Seungmok Paik et al.
  • 1Irreversible Climate Change Research Center, Yonsei University, Seoul, 03722, Korea
  • 2Division of Environmental Science and Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, Gyeongbuk, 37673, Korea
  • 3Institute for Convergence Research and Education in Advanced Technology, Yonsei University, Incheon, 21983, Korea
  • 4School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul, 08826, Korea
  • 5Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Yonsei University, Seoul, 03722, Korea
  • 6Marine Science and Convergence Engineering, Hanyang University, ERICA, Ansan, 15588, Korea

Abstract. This study analyzes the influence of tropical, northern, and southern volcanic eruptions on the surface climate, focusing on the role of El Niño–Southern Oscillation and stratospheric polar vortex, using large-ensemble simulations of the Community Earth System Model Last Millennium Ensemble. Typically, volcanic eruptions at different latitudes induce El Niño-like sea surface temperature anomalies over the equatorial eastern Pacific. However, the temporal variations and intensities differ. Such El Niño-like responses tend to amplify summer monsoon drying, which is stronger when followed by tropical eruptions than after northern and southern eruptions. Additionally, volcanic eruptions generate a stronger stratospheric polar vortex of varying magnitudes in both hemispheres. The strengthened Arctic polar vortex that occurs after tropical and southern eruptions, accompanies a positive Arctic Oscillation response in boreal winter. This induces warmer and wetter surface conditions over northern Eurasia relative to the conditions before the eruptions. However, the Arctic polar vortex and associated surface responses are only weakly influenced by northern eruptions. This is consistent with the more poleward spread of volcanic aerosols and the reduced equatorward extension of planetary wave propagation in the lower stratosphere. These results suggest that volcanic eruptions modulate surface climate by warming the sea surface temperature over the equatorial eastern Pacific and strengthening the stratospheric polar vortex but with diverse patterns depending on eruption latitudes.

Seungmok Paik et al.

Status: final response (author comments only)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on acp-2022-187', Anonymous Referee #1, 26 Mar 2022
    • AC1: 'Reply on RC1', Seung-Ki Min, 07 Apr 2022
    • RC3: 'Reply on RC1', Anonymous Referee #1, 22 Apr 2022
  • RC2: 'Comment on acp-2022-187', Anonymous Referee #2, 14 Apr 2022

Seungmok Paik et al.

Seungmok Paik et al.


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Short summary
This paper investigates Earth’s surface climate response to volcanic eruptions at different latitudes. By analyzing last millennium ensemble simulations of a coupled climate model, we have identified physical processes associated with the diverse impacts of volcanic eruption latitudes, focusing on the tropical ocean surface warming and the stratospheric polar vortex intensification. Our results provide important global implications for atmospheric responses to future volcanic aerosols.