Preprints
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2022-187
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2022-187
21 Mar 2022
 | 21 Mar 2022
Status: this preprint was under review for the journal ACP but the revision was not accepted.

How volcanic eruption latitudes diversify surface climate responses

Seungmok Paik, Seung-Ki Min, Seok-Woo Son, Soon-Il An, Jong-Seong Kug, and Sang-Wook Yeh

Abstract. This study analyzes the influence of tropical, northern, and southern volcanic eruptions on the surface climate, focusing on the role of El Niño–Southern Oscillation and stratospheric polar vortex, using large-ensemble simulations of the Community Earth System Model Last Millennium Ensemble. Typically, volcanic eruptions at different latitudes induce El Niño-like sea surface temperature anomalies over the equatorial eastern Pacific. However, the temporal variations and intensities differ. Such El Niño-like responses tend to amplify summer monsoon drying, which is stronger when followed by tropical eruptions than after northern and southern eruptions. Additionally, volcanic eruptions generate a stronger stratospheric polar vortex of varying magnitudes in both hemispheres. The strengthened Arctic polar vortex that occurs after tropical and southern eruptions, accompanies a positive Arctic Oscillation response in boreal winter. This induces warmer and wetter surface conditions over northern Eurasia relative to the conditions before the eruptions. However, the Arctic polar vortex and associated surface responses are only weakly influenced by northern eruptions. This is consistent with the more poleward spread of volcanic aerosols and the reduced equatorward extension of planetary wave propagation in the lower stratosphere. These results suggest that volcanic eruptions modulate surface climate by warming the sea surface temperature over the equatorial eastern Pacific and strengthening the stratospheric polar vortex but with diverse patterns depending on eruption latitudes.

Publisher's note: Copernicus Publications remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims made in the text, published maps, institutional affiliations, or any other geographical representation in this preprint. The responsibility to include appropriate place names lies with the authors.
Seungmok Paik, Seung-Ki Min, Seok-Woo Son, Soon-Il An, Jong-Seong Kug, and Sang-Wook Yeh

Status: closed

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on acp-2022-187', Anonymous Referee #1, 26 Mar 2022
    • AC1: 'Reply on RC1', Seung-Ki Min, 07 Apr 2022
    • RC3: 'Reply on RC1', Anonymous Referee #1, 22 Apr 2022
  • RC2: 'Comment on acp-2022-187', Anonymous Referee #2, 14 Apr 2022

Status: closed

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on acp-2022-187', Anonymous Referee #1, 26 Mar 2022
    • AC1: 'Reply on RC1', Seung-Ki Min, 07 Apr 2022
    • RC3: 'Reply on RC1', Anonymous Referee #1, 22 Apr 2022
  • RC2: 'Comment on acp-2022-187', Anonymous Referee #2, 14 Apr 2022
Seungmok Paik, Seung-Ki Min, Seok-Woo Son, Soon-Il An, Jong-Seong Kug, and Sang-Wook Yeh
Seungmok Paik, Seung-Ki Min, Seok-Woo Son, Soon-Il An, Jong-Seong Kug, and Sang-Wook Yeh

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Short summary
This paper investigates Earth’s surface climate response to volcanic eruptions at different latitudes. By analyzing last millennium ensemble simulations of a coupled climate model, we have identified physical processes associated with the diverse impacts of volcanic eruption latitudes, focusing on the tropical ocean surface warming and the stratospheric polar vortex intensification. Our results provide important global implications for atmospheric responses to future volcanic aerosols.
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