Haze pollution in winter and summer in Zibo, a heavily industrialized city neighboring the Jin-Jin-Ji area of China: source, formation, and implications
- 1State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Sources and Control of Air Pollution Complex, Beijing Key Laboratory of Indoor Air Quality Evaluation and Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
- 2Kimoto Electric Co. Ltd, Funahashi-Cho, Tennouji-Ku Osaka 543-0024, Japan
Abstract. Continuous field observations of haze pollution were conducted in winter and summer during 2015 in Zibo, a highly industrialized city in the North China Plain that is adjacent to the Jing-Jin-Ji area. PM2.5 concentration averaged 146.7 ± 85.8 and 82.2 ± 44.3 μg m−3 in winter and summer, respectively. The chemical component contributions to PM2.5 showed obvious seasonal variation. Organics were high in winter, but secondary inorganic aerosols (SIA) were high in summer. From non-haze to haze days, the concentration of SIA increased, implying an important role of secondary processes in the evolution process of the pollution. The diurnal behavior of several pollutants during haze days appeared to fluctuate more, but during non-haze days, it was much more stable, suggesting that complex mechanisms are involved. Specifically, gaseous precursors, mixed layer height (MLH), photochemical activity, and relative humidity (RH) also played important roles in the diurnal variation of the pollutants. Normally, larger gaseous precursor concentrations, photochemical activity, and RH, and lower MLH favored high concentrations. In winter, the formation of sulfate was mainly influenced by RH, indicating the importance of heterogeneous reactions in its formation. In contrast, in summer, photochemistry and SO2 concentration had the largest impact on the sulfate level. We found that Zibo was an ammonia-rich city, especially in winter, meaning that the formation of nitrate was through homogeneous reactions between HNO3 and NH3 in the gas phase, followed by partitioning into the particle phase. The RH, NO2, and
Excess NH4+ were the main influencing factors for nitrate in winter, whereas
Excess NH4+, RH, and temperature were the key factors in summer. The secondary organic carbon (SOC) level depended on the MLH and photochemistry. In winter, the effect of the MLH was stronger than that of photochemistry, but a reversed situation occurred in summer because of the intensive photochemistry. Our work suggested that the inter-transport between Zibo, one of the most polluted cities in north China, and its adjacent areas should be taken into account when formulating air pollution control policy.
Hui Li et al.
Hui Li et al.
Hui Li et al.
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