Modelled thermal and dynamical responses of the middle atmosphere to EPP-induced ozone changes
- 1Institute for Meteorology and Climate Research, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe, Germany
- 2Institute for Meteorology, Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany
- 3Steinbuch Centre for Computing, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe, Germany
Abstract. Energetic particles including protons, electrons and heavier ions, enter the Earth's atmosphere over the polar regions of both hemispheres, where they can greatly disturb the chemical composition of the upper and middle atmosphere and contribute to ozone depletion in the stratosphere and mesosphere. The chemistry–climate general circulation model EMAC is used to investigate the impact of changed ozone concentration due to Energetic Particle Precipitation (EPP) on temperature and wind fields. The results of our simulations show that ozone perturbation is a starting point for a chain of processes resulting in temperature and circulation changes over a wide range of latitudes and altitudes. In both hemispheres, as winter progresses the temperature and wind anomalies move downward with time from the mesosphere/upper stratosphere to the lower stratosphere. In the Northern Hemisphere (NH), once anomalies of temperature and zonal wind reach the lower stratosphere, another signal develops in mesospheric heights and moves downward. Analyses of Eliassen and Palm (EP) flux divergence show that accelerating or decelerating of the stratospheric zonal flow is in harmony with positive and negative anomalies of the EP flux divergences, respectively. This results suggest that the oscillatory mode in the downwelling signal of temperature and zonal wind in our simulations are the consequence of interaction between the resolved waves in the model and the mean stratospheric flow. Therefore, any changes in the EP flux divergence lead to anomalies in the zonal mean zonal wind which in turn feed back on the propagation of Rossby waves from the troposphere to higher altitudes. The analyses of Rossby waves refractive index show that the EPP-induced ozone anomalies are capable of altering the propagation condition of the planetary-scale Rossby waves in both hemispheres. It is also found that while ozone depletion was confined to mesospheric and stratospheric heights, but it is capable to alter Rossby wave propagation down to tropospheric heights. In response to an accelerated polar vortex in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) late wintertime, we found almost two weeks delay in the occurrence of mean dates of Stratospheric Final Warming (SFW). These results suggest that the stratosphere is not merely a passive sink of wave activity from below, but it plays an active role in determining its own budget of wave activity.
K. Karami et al.
K. Karami et al.
K. Karami et al.
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