Special issue |
Arctic mixed-phase clouds as studied during the ACLOUD/PASCAL campaigns in the framework of (AC)3(ACP/AMT/ESSD inter-journal SI)(ACP/AMT/ESSD inter-journal SI)
Editor(s): R. Krejci, J. Kay, M. Shupe, J. Heintzenberg, A. Solomon, T. Vihma, V. Walden, and K. Law
Special issue jointly organized between Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, and Earth System Science Data
In this special issue papers resulting from two major combined field campaigns shall be aggregated: (i) the Arctic CLoud Observations Using airborne measurements during polar Day (ACLOUD), and (ii) the Physical feedbacks of Arctic boundary layer, Sea ice, Cloud and AerosoL (PASCAL). These two concurrent campaigns took place in the vicinity of Svalbard in May and June 2017. They were designed to study processes important for explaining Arctic amplification, and, in particular, for investigating the role of microphysical and dynamical properties of Arctic low- and mid-level, mixed-phase clouds, and their interactions with atmospheric radiation and aerosol particles. Ground-based, ship-borne, tethered balloon, aircraft, and satellite observations have been combined. The research vessel (RV) Polarstern, an ice floe camp (erected close to the icebreaker) including an instrumented tethered balloon, and the two research aircraft, Polar 5 and Polar 6, were jointly operated. Polar 5 served as a mobile remote sensing observatory looking at the clouds from above, whereas Polar 6 operated as a flying in situ measurement laboratory mostly sampling inside the clouds. The permanent ground station of Ny-Ålesund observed the clouds from below, applying similar but upward-looking remote sensing equipment as Polar 5. Some of the flights were performed underneath respective satellite tracks. In this special issue we compile a number of papers reporting about the results of the observations conducted during ACLOUD/PASCAL within the framework of the (AC)3 project (http://www.ac3-tr.de/).
Susanne Crewell, Kerstin Ebell, Patrick Konjari, Mario Mech, Tatiana Nomokonova, Ana Radovan, David Strack, Arantxa M. Triana-Gómez, Stefan Noël, Raul Scarlat, Gunnar Spreen, Marion Maturilli, Annette Rinke, Irina Gorodetskaya, Carolina Viceto, Thomas August, and Marc Schröder
Preprint under review for ACP(discussion: open, 2 comments)
Ice nucleating particles (INPs) are not well characterized in the Arctic despite their importance for the Arctic energy budget. Little is known about their nature (mineral or biogenic) and sources (terrestrial or marine and long-range transport or local). We find indications that at the beginning of the melt season, a local, biogenic, probably marine source is likely, but significant enrichment of INPs has to take place from the ocean to the aerosol phase.
Preprint under review for ACP(discussion: final response, 2 comments)
Heterogeneous ice formation in arctic mixed-phase clouds under consideration of their surface-coupling state is investigated. Cloud phase and macrophysical properties were determined by means of lidar and cloud radar measurements, the coupling state and cloud-top temperature (CTT) by radiosonde profiles. Above −15 °C CTT surface-coupled clouds contain ice more likely by a factor of 2–5. By means of recent in-situ studies and in-depth lidar analysis different causes of this effect are discussed.
This study compares simulations with the ICON model at the kilometer scale to airborne radiation and cloud microphysics observations that have been derived during the ACLOUD aircraft campaign around Svalbard, Norway, in May/June 2017. We find an overestimated surface warming effect of clouds compared to the observations in our setup. This bias was reduced by considering subgrid-scale vertical motion in the activation of cloud condensation nuclei in the two-moment microphysical scheme used.
Revised manuscript under review for ACP(discussion: final response, 3 comments)
This paper describes a case study of a three-day period with a persistent humidity inversion above a mixed-phase cloud layer in the Arctic. It is based on measurements with a tethered balloon, complemented with results from a dedicated high-resolution large-eddy simulation. Both methods show that the humidity layer acts to provide moisture to the cloud layer through downward turbulent transport. This supply of additional moisture can contribute to the persistence of Arctic clouds.
André Welti, E. Keith Bigg, Paul J. DeMott, Xianda Gong, Markus Hartmann, Mike Harvey, Silvia Henning, Paul Herenz, Thomas C. J. Hill, Blake Hornblow, Caroline Leck, Mareike Löffler, Christina S. McCluskey, Anne Marie Rauker, Julia Schmale, Christian Tatzelt, Manuela van Pinxteren, and Frank Stratmann
Ship-based measurements of maritime ice nuclei concentrations encompassing all oceans are compiled. From this overview it is found that maritime ice nuclei concentrations are typically 10–100 times lower than over continents, while concentrations are surprisingly similar in different oceanic regions. The analysis of the influence of ship emissions shows no effect on the data, making ship-based measurements an efficient strategy for the large-scale exploration of ice nuclei concentrations.
Solar radiative effects of Arctic black carbon (BC) particles (suspended in the atmosphere and in the surface snowpack) were quantified under cloudless and cloudy conditions. An atmospheric and a snow radiative transfer model were coupled to account for radiative interactions between both compartments. It was found that (i) the warming effect of BC in the snowpack overcompensates for the atmospheric BC cooling effect, and (ii) clouds tend to reduce the atmospheric BC cooling and snow BC warming.
In summer 2017, the research vessel Polarstern performed cruise PS106 to the Arctic north of Svalbard. In the frame of the cruise, remote-sensing observations of the atmosphere were performed on Polarstern to continuously monitor aerosol and clouds above the vessel. In our study, we present the deployed instrumentation and applied data analysis methods and provide case studies of the aerosol and cloud observations made during the cruise. Statistics of low-cloud occurrence are presented as well.
This paper presents an influence of water vapor anomalies on cloud properties and their radiative effect at Ny-Ålesund. The study is based on a 2.5-year active and passive cloud observation and a radiative transfer model. The results show that moist and dry conditions are related to strong changes in cloud occurrence, phase partitioning, water path, and, consequently, modulate the surface radiative budget.
Mixed-phase clouds, formed of water droplets and ice crystals, appear frequently in Arctic regions. Characterizing the distribution of liquid water and ice inside the cloud appropriately is important because it influences the cloud's impact on the surface temperature. In this study, we combined images of the cloud top with measurements inside the cloud to analyze in detail the 3D spatial distribution of liquid and ice in two mixed-phase clouds occurring under different meteorological scenarios.
Simonas Kecorius, Teresa Vogl, Pauli Paasonen, Janne Lampilahti, Daniel Rothenberg, Heike Wex, Sebastian Zeppenfeld, Manuela van Pinxteren, Markus Hartmann, Silvia Henning, Xianda Gong, Andre Welti, Markku Kulmala, Frank Stratmann, Hartmut Herrmann, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Arctic sea-ice retreat, atmospheric new particle formation (NPF), and aerosol–cloud interaction may all be linked via a positive feedback mechanism. Understanding the sources of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) is an important piece in the Arctic amplification puzzle. We show that Arctic newly formed particles do not have to grow beyond the Aitken mode to act as CCN. This is important, because NPF occurrence in the Arctic is expected to increase, making it a significant contributor to CCN budget.
Multiyear statistics of persistent low-level mixed-phase clouds observed at an Arctic fjord environment in Svalbard are presented. The effects the local boundary layer (i.e. the fjords' wind climate and surface coupling), regional wind direction, and seasonality have on the cloud occurrence and properties are evaluated using a synergy of ground-based remote sensing methods and auxiliary data. The phenomena considered were found to modify the amount of liquid and ice in the studied clouds.
In this study, we apply a high-resolution model at the observation supersite Ny-Ålesund (Svalbard) to evaluate mixed-phase clouds. These clouds are a potential driver for the stronger warming in the Arctic compared to the global mean, but their representation in climate models is typically rather poor due to complex microphysical processes. The presented combination of high-resolution modeling and long-term state-of-the-art observations can lead to improved process understanding.
In the changing Arctic, quantifying the resulting variability of incoming solar radiation is important to better elucidate the net radiative effect of clouds. As part of a multidisciplinary expedition in the central Arctic held in early summer 2017, a novel network of pyranometers was deployed over an ice floe to investigate the spatiotemporal variability of solar radiation under different sky conditions. This study presents the collected data and an analysis of the spatiotemporal variability.
André Ehrlich, Manfred Wendisch, Christof Lüpkes, Matthias Buschmann, Heiko Bozem, Dmitri Chechin, Hans-Christian Clemen, Régis Dupuy, Olliver Eppers, Jörg Hartmann, Andreas Herber, Evelyn Jäkel, Emma Järvinen, Olivier Jourdan, Udo Kästner, Leif-Leonard Kliesch, Franziska Köllner, Mario Mech, Stephan Mertes, Roland Neuber, Elena Ruiz-Donoso, Martin Schnaiter, Johannes Schneider, Johannes Stapf, and Marco Zanatta
During the Arctic CLoud Observations Using airborne measurements during polar Day (ACLOUD) campaign, two research aircraft (Polar 5 and 6) jointly performed 22 research flights over the transition zone between open ocean and closed sea ice. The data set combines remote sensing and in situ measurement of cloud, aerosol, and trace gas properties, as well as turbulent and radiative fluxes, which will be used to study Arctic boundary layer and mid-level clouds and their role in Arctic amplification.
An improved understanding of Arctic mixed-phase clouds and their contribution to Arctic warming can be achieved by observations from airborne platforms with remote sensing instruments. Such an instrument is MiRAC combining active and passive techniques to gain information on the distribution of clouds, the occurrence of precipitation, and the amount of liquid and ice within the cloud. Operated during a campaign in Arctic summer, it could observe lower clouds often not seen by spaceborne radars.
Clouds may be composed of more than one particle population even at the smallest scales. Cloud radar observations can contain information on multiple particle species, showing up as distinct peaks and subpeaks in the Doppler spectrum. We propose the use of binary tree structures to recursively structure these peaks. Two case studies from different locations and instruments illustrate how this approach can be used to disentangle particle populations in multilayered mixed-phase clouds.
In this study, we introduce the new tethered balloon system BELUGA, which includes different modular instrument packages for measuring turbulence and radiation in the atmospheric boundary layer. BELUGA was deployed in an Arctic field campaign in 2017, providing details of boundary layer processes in combination with low-level clouds. Those processes are still not fully understood and in situ measurements in the Arctic improve our understanding of the Arctic response in terms of global warming.
Heike Wex, Lin Huang, Wendy Zhang, Hayley Hung, Rita Traversi, Silvia Becagli, Rebecca J. Sheesley, Claire E. Moffett, Tate E. Barrett, Rossana Bossi, Henrik Skov, Anja Hünerbein, Jasmin Lubitz, Mareike Löffler, Olivia Linke, Markus Hartmann, Paul Herenz, and Frank Stratmann
We found an annual cycle for ice-nucleating particles in the Arctic. These particles are important for Arctic clouds, as they can change the lifetime of clouds. We suggest that higher concentrations of these particles in summertime originate from the Arctic biosphere (both marine and terrestrial). With a warming Arctic, these concentrations may increase further, influencing aerosol–cloud interactions and therewith the observed strong warming of the Arctic.
In this study, properties of clouds at the French–German Arctic research station in Ny-Ålesund are related to in-cloud thermodynamic conditions. The dataset used was collected within the Arctic Amplification project with a set of active and passive remote instruments. The results are compared with a model output. Significant divergence in observations and modelling of single-layer ice and mixed-phase clouds was found.
Multilayer clouds are coexisting clouds at different heights. We evaluate measurements and find that Arctic multilayer clouds occur in 29 % of the investigated days at Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard. Multilayer clouds can interact by ice crystals falling from the upper cloud into the lower cloud. This is possible in 23 % of the investigated days, and in 9 % it is not possible. Weather models are still error-prone in the Arctic and we suggest that multilayer clouds should be included more in future work.
We developed a new algorithm for cloud identification over the Arctic. This algorithm called ASCIA, utilizes time-series measurements of Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) on Envisat and Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer (SLSTR) on Sentinel-3A and -3B.
The data product of ASCIA is compared with three satellite products: ASCIA shows an improved performance compared to them. We validated ASCIA by ground-based measurements and a promising agreement is achieved.
Erlend M. Knudsen, Bernd Heinold, Sandro Dahlke, Heiko Bozem, Susanne Crewell, Irina V. Gorodetskaya, Georg Heygster, Daniel Kunkel, Marion Maturilli, Mario Mech, Carolina Viceto, Annette Rinke, Holger Schmithüsen, André Ehrlich, Andreas Macke, Christof Lüpkes, and Manfred Wendisch
The paper describes the synoptic development during the ACLOUD/PASCAL airborne and ship-based field campaign near Svalbard in spring 2017. This development is presented using near-surface and upperair meteorological observations, satellite, and model data. We first present time series of these data, from which we identify and characterize three key periods. Finally, we put our observations in historical and regional contexts and compare our findings to other Arctic field campaigns.