Articles | Volume 7, issue 18
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 4953–4976, 2007
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 4953–4976, 2007

  27 Sep 2007

27 Sep 2007

Civil Aircraft for the regular investigation of the atmosphere based on an instrumented container: The new CARIBIC system

C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer1, P. Crutzen1, F. Boumard5, T. Dauer2, B. Dix3, R. Ebinghaus4, D. Filippi5, H. Fischer6, H. Franke7, U. Frieβ3, J. Heintzenberg8, F. Helleis1, M. Hermann8, H. H. Kock4, C. Koeppel1, J. Lelieveld1, M. Leuenberger9, B. G. Martinsson10, S. Miemczyk11, H. P. Moret9, H. N. Nguyen10, P. Nyfeler9, D. Oram12, D. O'Sullivan12, S. Penkett12, U. Platt3, M. Pupek1, M. Ramonet5, B. Randa1, M. Reichelt8, T. S. Rhee1,*, J. Rohwer11, K. Rosenfeld11, D. Scharffe1, H. Schlager13, U. Schumann13, F. Slemr1, D. Sprung6, P. Stock13, R. Thaler11, F. Valentino9, P. van Velthoven14, A. Waibel15, A. Wandel16, K. Waschitschek17,**, A. Wiedensohler8, I. Xueref-Remy5, A. Zahn6, U. Zech18, and H. Ziereis13 C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer et al.
  • 1Max-Planck-Institut für Chemie (MPI), Air Chemistry Division, Joh.-J.-Becherweg 27, 55128 Mainz, Germany
  • 2Lufthansa Technik, Lufthansa Base, Frankfurt Airport, FRA WE 24, 60546 Frankfurt, Germany
  • 3Institut für Umweltphysik, Universität Heidelberg, INF229, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
  • 4GKSS-Research Centre, Institute for Coastal Research (GKSS), Max-Planck-Str. 1, 21502 Geesthacht, Germany
  • 5Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement (CNRS), Unité mixte CNRS/CEA, CEA Saclay Orme des Merisiers – Bat.703, Pièce 26, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex, France
  • 6Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung (IMK), Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Weberstr. 5, 76133 Karlsruhe, Germany
  • 7Enviscope GmbH, Arnoldhainer Str. 5, 60489 Frankfurt, Germany
  • 8Leibniz-Institut für Troposphärenforschung (IFT), Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig, Germany
  • 9University Bern, Institut für Klima- und Umweltphysik, Sidlerstr. 5, 3012 Bern, Switzerland
  • 10University of Lund, Division of Nuclear Physics, P.O. Box 118, 22100 Lund, Sweden
  • 11Lufthansa Technik, VIP & Government Jet Maintenance, Weg beim Jaeger 193, 22335, Hamburg, Germany
  • 12University of East Anglia, School of Environmental Sciences, Norwich, NR4 7TJ, UK
  • 13Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), Institut für Physik der Atmosphäre, 82230 Wessling, Germany
  • 14Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI), P.O. Box 201, NL-3730 AE, de Bilt, the Netherlands
  • 15Lufthansa, Environmental Division, Frankfurt Airport Center, Hugo-Eckener-Ring B.649, 60549 Frankfurt, Germany
  • 16Heggeman Aerospace AG, Zeppelinring 1–6, 33142 Büren, Germany
  • 17Garner CAD Technik GmbH, Argelsrieder Feld 2/4, 82234 Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany
  • 18KOLT Engineering GmbH, Argelsrieder Feld 20, 82234 Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany
  • *now at: Korean Polar Research Institute, Sangrokgu Sa-2-dong 1270, Ansan 426-744, Korea
  • **now at: RUAG Aerospace Services GmbH, P.O.Box 1253, 82231 Wessling, Germany

Abstract. An airfreight container with automated instruments for measurement of atmospheric gases and trace compounds was operated on a monthly basis onboard a Boeing 767-300 ER of LTU International Airways during long-distance flights from 1997 to 2002 (CARIBIC, Civil Aircraft for Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container, Subsequently a more advanced system has been developed, using a larger capacity container with additional equipment and an improved inlet system. CARIBIC phase #2 was implemented on a new long-range aircraft type Airbus A340-600 of the Lufthansa German Airlines (Star Alliance) in December 2004, creating a powerful flying observatory. The instrument package comprises detectors for the measurement of O3, total and gaseous H2O, NO and NOy, CO, CO2, O2, Hg, and number concentrations of sub-micrometer particles (>4 nm, >12 nm, and >18 nm diameter). Furthermore, an optical particle counter (OPC) and a proton transfer mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) are incorporated. Aerosol samples are collected for analysis of elemental composition and particle morphology after flight. Air samples are taken in glass containers for laboratory analyses of hydrocarbons, halocarbons and greenhouse gases (including isotopic composition of CO2) in several laboratories. Absorption tubes collect oxygenated volatile organic compounds. Three differential optical absorption spectrometers (DOAS) with their telescopes mounted in the inlet system measure atmospheric trace gases such as BrO, HONO, and NO2. A video camera mounted in the inlet provides information about clouds along the flight track. The flying observatory, its equipment and examples of measurement results are reported.

Final-revised paper