Extending the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system to hemispheric scales: overview of process considerations and initial applications
Abstract. The Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system is extended to simulate ozone, particulate matter, and related precursor distributions throughout the Northern Hemisphere. Modeled processes were examined and enhanced to suitably represent the extended space and timescales for such applications. Hemispheric-scale simulations with CMAQ and the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model are performed for multiple years. Model capabilities for a range of applications including episodic long-range pollutant transport, long-term trends in air pollution across the Northern Hemisphere, and air pollution–climate interactions are evaluated through detailed comparison with available surface, aloft, and remotely sensed observations. The expansion of CMAQ to simulate the hemispheric scales provides a framework to examine interactions between atmospheric processes occurring on various spatial and temporal scales with physical, chemical, and dynamical consistency.