Temporal and spatial variability of Icelandic dust emissions and atmospheric transport
- 1NILU Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Kjeller, Norway
- 2Agricultural University of Iceland, Hvanneyri, Iceland
- 3Faculty of Physical Sciences, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland
- 4Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic
- 5Department of Atmospheric Sciences and Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, Miami, USA
Abstract. Icelandic dust sources are known to be highly active, yet there exist few model simulations of Icelandic dust that could be used to assess its impacts on the environment. We here present estimates of dust emission and transport in Iceland over 27 years (1990–2016) based on FLEXDUST and FLEXPART simulations and meteorological re-analysis data. Simulations for the year 2012 based on high-resolution operational meteorological analyses are used for model evaluation based on PM2. 5 and PM10 observations in Iceland. For stations in Reykjavik, we find that the spring period is well predicted by the model, while dust events in late fall and early winter are overpredicted. Six years of dust concentrations observed at Stórhöfði (Heimaey) show that the model predicts concentrations of the same order of magnitude as observations and timing of modelled and observed dust peaks agrees well. Average annual dust emission is 4.3 ± 0.8 Tg during the 27 years of simulation. Fifty percent of all dust from Iceland is on average emitted in just 25 days of the year, demonstrating the importance of a few strong events for annual total dust emissions. Annual dust emission as well as transport patterns correlate only weakly to the North Atlantic Oscillation. Deposition amounts in remote regions (Svalbard and Greenland) vary from year to year. Only limited dust amounts reach the upper Greenland Ice Sheet, but considerable dust amounts are deposited on Icelandic glaciers and can impact melt rates there. Approximately 34 % of the annual dust emission is deposited in Iceland itself. Most dust (58 %), however, is deposited in the ocean and may strongly influence marine ecosystems.