Impact of Siberian forest fires on the atmosphere over the Korean Peninsula during summer 2014
Abstract. Extensive forest fires occurred during late July 2014 across the forested region of Siberia, Russia. Smoke plumes emitted from Siberian forest fires underwent long-range transport over Mongolia and northeast China to the Korean Peninsula, which is located ∼ 3000 km south of the Siberian forest. A notably high aerosol optical depth of ∼ 4 was observed at a wavelength of 500 nm near the source of the Siberian forest fires. Smoke plumes reached 3–5 km in height near the source and fell below 2 km over the Korean Peninsula. Elevated concentrations of levoglucosan were observed (119.7 ± 6.0 ng m−3), which were ∼ 4.5 times higher than those observed during non-event periods in July 2014. During the middle of July 2014, a haze episode occurred that was primarily caused by the long-range transport of emission plumes originating from urban and industrial complexes in East China. Sharp increases in SO42− concentrations (23.1 ± 2.1 µg m−3) were observed during this episode. The haze caused by the long-range transport of Siberian forest fire emissions was clearly identified by relatively high organic carbon (OC) ∕ elemental carbon (EC) ratios (7.18 ± 0.2) and OC ∕ SO42− ratios (1.31 ± 0.07) compared with those of the Chinese haze episode (OC ∕ EC ratio: 2.4 ± 0.4; OC ∕ SO42− ratio: 0.21 ± 0.05). Remote measurement techniques and chemical analyses of the haze plumes clearly show that the haze episode that occurred during late July 2014 was caused mainly by the long-range transport of smoke plumes emitted from Siberian forest fires.