Air quality over Europe: modelling gaseous and particulate pollutants
Abstract. Air quality over Europe using Models-3 (i.e., CMAQ, MM5, SMOKE) modelling system is performed for winter (i.e., January 2006) and summer (i.e., July 2006) months with the 2006 TNO gridded anthropogenic emissions database. Higher ozone mixing ratios are predicted in southern Europe while higher NO2 levels are simulated over western Europe. Elevated SO2 values are simulated over eastern Europe and higher PM2.5 concentrations over eastern and western Europe. Regional average results suggest that NO2 and PM2.5 are underpredicted, SO2 is overpredicted, while Max8hrO3 is overpredicted for low mixing ratios and is underpredicted for the higher mixing ratios. However, in a number of countries observed and predicted values are in good agreement for the pollutants examined here. Speciated PM2.5 components suggest that NO3 is dominant during winter over western Europe and in a few eastern countries due to the high NO2 mixing ratios. During summer NO3 is dominant only in regions with elevated NH3 emissions. For the rest of the domain SO4 is dominant. Low OC concentrations are simulated mainly due to the uncertain representation of SOA formation.