Annual cycle of ozone at and above the tropical tropopause: observations versus simulations with the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS)
Abstract. Multi-annual simulations with the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS) were conducted to study the seasonality of O3 within the stratospheric part of the tropical tropopause layer (TTL), i.e. above θ=360 K potential temperature level. In agreement with satellite (HALOE) and in-situ observations (SHADOZ), CLaMS simulations show a pronounced annual cycle in O3, at and above θ=380 K, with the highest mixing ratios in the late boreal summer. Within the model, this cycle is driven by the seasonality of both upwelling and in-mixing. The latter process occurs through enhanced horizontal transport from the extratropics into the TTL that is mainly driven by the meridional, isentropic winds. The strongest in-mixing occurs during the late boreal summer from the Northern Hemisphere in the potential temperature range between 370 and 420 K. Complementary, the strongest upwelling occurs in winter reducing O3 to the lowest values in early spring. Both CLaMS simulations and Aura MLS O3 observations consistently show that enhanced in-mixing in summer is mainly driven by the Asian monsoon anticyclone.