Preprints
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2021-963
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2021-963

  17 Dec 2021

17 Dec 2021

Review status: this preprint is currently under review for the journal ACP.

Newly identified climatically and environmentally significant high latitude dust sources

Outi Meinander1, Pavla Dagsson-Waldhauserova2,3, Pavel Amosov4, Elena Aseyeva5, Cliff Atkins6, Alexander Baklanov7, Clarissa Baldo8, Sarah Barr9, Barbara Barzycka10, Liane Benning11, Bojan Cvetkovic12, Polina Enchilik5, Denis Frolov5, Santiago Gassó13, Konrad Kandler14, Nikolay Kasimov5, Jan Kavan15, James King16, Tatyana Koroleva5, Viktoria Krupskaya5, Monika Kusiak17, Michał Laska10, Jerome Lasne18, Marek Lewandowski17, Bartłomiej Luks17, James McQuaid9, Beatrice Moroni19, Benjamin Murray9, Ottmar Möhler20, Adam Nawrot17, Slobodan Nickovic12, Norman O’Neill21, Goran Pejanovic12, Olga Popovicheva5, Keyvan Ranjbar21, Manolis Romanias18, Olga Samonova5, Alberto Sanchez-Marroquin9, Kerstin Schepanski22, Ivan Semenkov5, Anna Sharapova5, Elena Shevnina1, Zongbo Shi8, Mikhail Sofiev1, Frédéric Thevenet18, Throstur Thorsteinsson23, Mikhail Timofeev5, Nsikanabasi Silas Umo20, Andreas Uppstu1, Darya Urupina18, György Varga24, Tomasz Werner17, Olafur Arnalds2, and Ana Vukovic Vimic25 Outi Meinander et al.
  • 1Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, 00101, Finland
  • 2Agricultural University of Iceland, Reykjavik, 112, Iceland
  • 3Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Prague, 16521, Czech Republic
  • 4INEP Kola Science Center RAS, Apatity, Russia
  • 5Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, 119991, Russia
  • 6Te Herenga Waka—Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, 6012, New Zealand
  • 7World Meteorological Organization, WMO, Geneva, 1211, Switzerland
  • 8University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT, United Kingdom
  • 9University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, United Kingdom
  • 10University of Silesia in Katowice, Sosnowiec, 41-200, Poland
  • 11German Research Centre for Geosciences, Helmholtz Centre Potsdam, 14473, Germany
  • 12Republic Hydrometereological Service of Serbia, 11030, Belgrade, Serbia
  • 13University of Maryland, College Park MD, 20742, United States of America
  • 14Technical University of Darmstadt, Darmstadt, 64287, Germany
  • 15Masaryk University, Brno, 61137, Czech Republic
  • 16University of Montreal, Montreal, H3T 1J4, Canada
  • 17Institute of Geophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, 01-452, Poland
  • 18IMT Lille Douai, SAGE, Université de Lille, 59000 Lille, France
  • 19University of Perugia, Perugia, 06123, Italy
  • 20Institute of Meteorology and Climate Research, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe, 76227, Germany
  • 21Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, J1K, Canada
  • 22Free University of Berlin, Berlin, 12165, Germany
  • 23University of Iceland, Reykjavik, 102, Iceland
  • 24Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Budapest, 1112, Hungary
  • 25University of Belgrade, Faculty of Agriculture, Belgrade, 11080, Serbia

Abstract. Dust particles emitted from high latitudes (≥ 50° N and ≥ 40° S, including Arctic as a subregion ≥ 60° N), have a potentially large local, regional, and global significance to climate and environment as short-lived climate forcers, air pollutants and nutrient sources. To understand the multiple impacts of the High Latitude Dust (HLD) on the Earth systems, it is foremost to identify the geographic locations and characteristics of local dust sources. Here, we identify, describe, and quantify the Source Intensity (SI) values using the Global Sand and Dust Storms Source Base Map (G-SDS-SBM), for sixty-four HLD sources included in our collection in the Northern (Alaska, Canada, Denmark, Greenland, Iceland, Svalbard, Sweden, and Russia) and Southern (Antarctica and Patagonia) high latitudes. Activity from most of these HLD dust sources show seasonal character. The environmental and climatic effects of dust on clouds and climatic feedbacks, atmospheric chemistry, marine environment, and cryosphere-atmosphere feedbacks at high latitudes are discussed, and regional-scale modelling of dust atmospheric transport from potential Arctic dust sources is demonstrated. It is estimated that high latitude land area with higher (SI ≥ 0.5), very high (SI ≥ 0.7) and the highest potential (SI ≥ 0.9) for dust emission cover >1 670 000 km2, >560 000 km2, and >240 000 km2, respectively. In the Arctic HLD region, land area with SI ≥ 0.5 is 5.5 % (1 035 059 km2), area with SI ≥ 0.7 is 2.3 % (440 804 km2), and with SI ≥ 0.9 it is 1.1 % (208 701 km2). Minimum SI values in the north HLD region are about three orders of magnitude smaller, indicating that the dust sources of this region are highly dependable on weather conditions. In the south HLD region, soil surface conditions are favourable for dust emission during the whole year. Climate change can cause decrease of snow cover duration, retrieval of glaciers, permafrost thaw, and increase of drought and heat waves intensity and frequency, which all lead to the increasing frequency of topsoil conditions favourable for dust emission and thereby increasing probability for dust storms. Our study provides a step forward to improve the representation of HLD in models and to monitor, quantify and assess the environmental and climate significance of HLD in the future.

Outi Meinander et al.

Status: open (until 28 Jan 2022)

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Outi Meinander et al.

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Short summary
High latitude dust (HLD) is a short-lived climate forcer, air pollutant and nutrient source. We identified 64 new high latitude dust sources and their observations and source characteristics. Our update provides crucially needed information on the extent of active HLD sources and their locations. Active HLD sources serve as important sources of aerosols with both direct and indirect impacts on climate and environment in remote regions, which are often poorly understood and predicted.
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