Preprints
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2021-111
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2021-111

  26 Feb 2021

26 Feb 2021

Review status: this preprint is currently under review for the journal ACP.

Particle emissions from a modern heavy-duty diesel engine as ice-nuclei in immersion freezing mode: an experimental study on fossil and renewable fuels

Kimmo Korhonen1, Thomas Bjerring Kristensen2, John Falk2, Vilhelm B. Malmborg3, Axel Eriksson3, Louise Gren3, Maja Novakovic4, Sam Shamun4, Panu Karjalainen5, Lassi Markkula5, Joakim Pagels3, Birgitta Svenningsson2, Martin Tunér4, Mika Komppula6, Ari Laaksonen7,1, and Annele Virtanen1 Kimmo Korhonen et al.
  • 1University of Eastern Finland, Dept. of Applied Physics. P.O. box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio, Finland
  • 2Lund University, Department of Physics, P.O. box 118, SE-22100, Lund, Sweden
  • 3Lund University, Ergonomics and Aerosol Technology, P.O. box 118, SE-22100, Lund, Sweden
  • 4Lund University, Division of Combustion Engines, P.O. box 118, SE-22100, Lund, Sweden
  • 5Tampere University, P.O. box 1001, FI-33014, Tampere, Finland
  • 6Finnish Meteorological Institute, Atmospheric Research Centre of Eastern Finland, P.O. box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio, Finland
  • 7Finnish Meteorological Institute, P.O. box 503, FI-00101, Helsinki, Finland

Abstract. We studied ice-nucleating abilities of particulate emissions from a modern heavy-duty diesel engine using three different types of fuel. The polydisperse particle emissions were sampled during engine operation and introduced to a continuous-flow diffusion chamber (CFDC) instrument at a constant relative humidity RHwater = 110 %, and temperature was ramped between −43 °C and −32 °C (T-scan). The tested fuels were EN 590 compliant low-sulfur fossil diesel, hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) and rapeseed methyl ester (RME), and all were investigated without blending. Sampling was carried out at different stages in the engine exhaust after-treatment system, with and without simulated atmospheric processing using an oxidation flow reactor. In addition to ice-nucleation experiments, we used supportive instrumentation to characterize the emission particles and present six different physical and chemical properties of them. We found that the studied emissions were poor ice-nucleators and substitution of fossil diesel with renewable fuels, using different emission after-treatment systems and photochemical aging of total exhaust had only little effect on their ice-nucleating abilities.

Kimmo Korhonen et al.

Status: open (until 23 Apr 2021)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse

Kimmo Korhonen et al.

Kimmo Korhonen et al.

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Short summary
We investigated the ice-nucleating abilities of particulate emissions from a modern diesel engine using portable ice-nuclei counter SPIN, a continuous flow diffusion chamber instrument. Three different fuels were studied without blending, including fossil diesel and two renewable fuels, testing different emission aftertreatment systems and photochemical aging. We found that the diesel emissions were inefficient ice-nuclei, and aging had only no or little effect on their ice-nucleating abilities.
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