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© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

  07 Aug 2020

07 Aug 2020

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This preprint is currently under review for the journal ACP.

Stratospheric aerosol layer perturbation caused by the 2019 Raikoke and Ulawun eruptions and climate impact

Corinna Kloss1, Gwenaël Berthet1, Pasquale Sellitto2, Felix Ploeger3,4, Ghassan Taha5,6, Mariam Tidiga1, Maxim Eremenko2, Adriana Bossolasco1, Fabrice Jégou1, Jean-Baptiste Renard1, and Bernard Legras7 Corinna Kloss et al.
  • 1Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie de l'Environnement et de l'Espace, CNRS/Université d'Orléans, UMR 7328, Orléans, France
  • 2Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systèmes Atmosphériques, UMR CNRS 7583, Université Paris-Est Créteil, Université de Paris, Institut Pierre Simon Laplace (IPSL), Créteil, France
  • 3Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institute of Energy and Climate Research (IEK-7), Jülich, Germany
  • 4Institute for Atmospheric and Environmental Research, University of Wuppertal, Wuppertal, Germany
  • 5Universities Space Research Association, Greenbelt, Maryland, USA
  • 6NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, USA
  • 7Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique, UMR CNRS 8539, ENS-PSL/Sorbonne Université/École Polytechnique, Paris, France

Abstract. In June 2019 a stratospheric moderate eruption occurred at Raikoke (48° N, 153° E). Satellite observations show the injection of ash and SO2 into the lower stratosphere and an early entrainment of the plume into a cyclone. Following the Raikoke eruption stratospheric Aerosol Optical Depth (sAOD) values increased in the whole northern hemisphere and tropics and remained enhanced for more than one year, with peak values at 0.040 (shorter-wavelength visible, higher northern latitudes) to 0.025 (shorter-wavelength visible, average northern hemisphere). Discrepancies between observations and models indicate that ash has played a role on evolution and sAOD values. Top of the atmosphere radiative forcings are estimated at values between −0.3 and −0.4 W/m2 (clear-sky), and of −0.1 to −0.2 W/m2 (all-sky), comparable to what was estimated for the Sarychev eruption in 2009. Almost simultaneously two significantly smaller stratospheric eruptions occurred at Ulawun (5° S, 151° E) in June and August. Aerosol enhancements from the Ulawun eruptions had mainly an impact on the tropics and southern hemisphere. The Ulawun plume circled the Earth within one month in the tropics. Peak shorter-wavelength sAOD values at 0.01 are found in the tropics following the Ulawun eruptions, and a radiative forcing not exceeding −0.15 (clear-sky) and −0.05 (all-sky). Compared to the Canadian Fires (2017), Ambae eruption (2018), Ulawun (2019) and the Australian fires (2019/2020) highest sAOD values and RF are found for the Raikoke eruption.

Corinna Kloss et al.

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Corinna Kloss et al.

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GIF of the Raikoke eruption Bernard Legras and Corinna Kloss

Corinna Kloss et al.


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Publications Copernicus
Short summary
The year 2019 was particularly rich for the stratospheric aerosol layer due to two volcanic eruptions (at Raikoke and Ulawun) and wild fire events. With satellite observations and models, we describe the exceptionally complex situation following the Raikoke eruption. The respective plume overwhelmed the northern hemispheric stratosphere in terms of aerosol load and climate impact for the past decade.
The year 2019 was particularly rich for the stratospheric aerosol layer due to two volcanic...