Preprints
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2022-600
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2022-600
 
12 Oct 2022
12 Oct 2022
Status: this preprint is currently under review for the journal ACP.

Measurement Report: Atmospheric CH4 at regional stations of the Korea Meteorological Administration/Global Atmosphere Watch Programme: measurement, characteristics and long-term changes of its drivers

Haeyoung Lee, Won-Ick Seo, Shanlan Li, Soojeong Lee, Samuel Kenea, and Sangwon Joo Haeyoung Lee et al.
  • National Institute of Meteorological Sciences, Jeju, 63568, Republic of Korea

Abstract. To quantify CH4 emissions at policy-relevant spatial scales, the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) started monitoring its atmospheric levels in 1999 at Anmyeondo (AMY), and expanded monitoring to Jeju Gosan Suwolbong (JGS) and Ulleungdo (ULD) in 2012. The monitoring system consists of a Cavity Ring Down Spectrometer (CRDS) and a new cryogenic drying method, with a measurement uncertainty (68 % c.i.) of 0.7–0.8 ppb. To determine the regional characteristics of CH4 at each KMA station, we assessed the CH4 level relative to local background (CH4xs), analyzed local surface winds and CH4 with bivariate polar plots, and investigated CH4 diurnal cycles. We also compared the CH4 levels measured at KMA stations with those measured at the Mt. Waliguan (WLG) station in China and Ryori (ROY) station in Japan. CH4xs followed the order AMY (55.3±37.7 ppb) > JGS (24.1±10.2 ppb) > ULD (7.4±3.9 ppb). Although CH4 was observed in well mixed air at AMY, it was higher than at other KMA stations, indicating that it was affected not only by local sources but also by distant air masses. Annual mean CH4 was highest at AMY among all East Asian stations, while its seasonal amplitude was smaller than at JGS, which was strongly affected in the summer by local biogenic activities. From the long-term records at AMY, we confirmed that the source of CH4xs changed from the past (2006 to 2010) to recent (2016 to 2020) years in East Asia. Especially in northern China, CH4xs was mainly attributed to fossil fuel combustion or biomass burning during 2006–2010, but mainly to biogenic activities during 2016–2020, as indicated by decreasing δ13CH4 from the northern China. CH4 emissions in the southern part of China and in South Korea were enhanced by biogenic signals during 2016–2020. We confirmed that long-term high-quality data can help understand changes in CH4 emissions in East Asia.

Haeyoung Lee et al.

Status: final response (author comments only)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on acp-2022-600', Anonymous Referee #1, 07 Nov 2022
  • RC2: 'Comment on acp-2022-600', Anonymous Referee #2, 23 Nov 2022

Haeyoung Lee et al.

Data sets

AMY and TAP C13 in CH4 flask data Sylvia Michel ftp://aftp.cmdl.noaa.gov/data/trace_gases/

AMY and TAP CH4 flask data and WLG CH4 data Dlugokencky, E.J., A.M. Crotwell, J.W. Mund, M.J. Crotwell, and K.W. Thoning https://doi.org/10.15138/VNCZ-M766

AMY, JGS, ULD CH4 in situ surface data Haeyoung Lee and Soojeong Lee http://climate.go.kr/home/09_monitoring/search/search

RYO CH4 data Saito Kazuyuki https://gaw.kishou.go.jp/search/file/0001-2012-1002-01-01-9999

Haeyoung Lee et al.

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Short summary
We introduce 3 monitoring Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) stations with monitoring system and measurement uncertainty. We also analyzed the regional characteristics of CH4 at each KMA station. We also compared the CH4 levels measured at KMA stations with those measured at other Asia stations. From the long-term records of CH4 and δ13CH4 at AMY, we confirmed that the source of CH4xs changed from the past (2006 to 2010) to recent (2016 to 2020) years in East Asia.
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