11 Aug 2022
11 Aug 2022
Status: a revised version of this preprint is currently under review for the journal ACP.

Comprehensive characterization of the particulate IVOCs and SVOCs from heavy-duty diesel vehicles using two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry

Xiao He1, Xuan Zheng1, Shaojun Zhang2,3, Xuan Wang4, Ting Chen1, Xiao Zhang2, Guanghan Huang2, Yihuan Cao2, Liqiang He2, Xubing Cao5, Yuan Cheng5, Shuxiao Wang2,3, and Ye Wu2,6 Xiao He et al.
  • 1College of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, China
  • 2School of Environment, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
  • 3State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Sources and Control of Air Pollution Complex, Beijing 100084, China
  • 4School of Energy and Environment, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China
  • 5State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, School of Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150090, China
  • 6Beijing Laboratory of Environmental Frontiers Technologies, Beijing 100084, China

Abstract. Tailpipe emissions from three heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs), complying with varying emission standards and installed with diverse aftertreatment technologies, are collected at a certified chassis dynamometer laboratory. The HDDV-emitted intermediate-volatility and semi-volatile organic compound (I/SVOC) emission and the gas-particle partitioning of the I/SVOCs are investigated. Over four thousand compounds are identified and grouped into twenty-one categories. The dominant compound groups of particulate I/SVOCs are alkanes and phenolic compounds. For HDDVs without aftertreatment devices, i.e., diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and diesel particulate filter (DPF), the emitted I/SVOCs partition dramatically into the gas phase (accounting for ~ 93 % of the total I/SVOC mass), with a few exceptional categories: hopane, 4-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH4rings), and PAH5rings. For HDDVs with DPF and DOC, the particulate fractions are reduced to a negligible level, i.e., less than 2 %. Nevertheless, 50 % of the total 2-ring PAH mass is detected in the particle phase, which is much higher than the high-molecular-weight PAHs, arising from the positive sampling artifact of quartz filter absorbing organic vapours. The positive sampling artifact of quartz filter absorbing organic vapors is clearly observed and uncertainties are discussed and quantified. Particulate I/SVOCs at low-speed, middle-speed, and high-speed phases are collected and analysed separately. EF distribution of the speciated OA on a two-dimensional volatility basis set (2D-VBS) space reveals that the fractions of OA with O : C (oxygen to carbon) ratio > 0.3 (0.4, 0.5) are 18.2 % (11.5 %, 9.5 %), 23 % (15.4 %, 13.6 %), and 29.1 % (20.6 %, 19.1 %) at low-speed, middle-speed, and high-speed stages. The results help to resolve the complex organic mixtures and trace the evolution of OA.

Xiao He et al.

Status: final response (author comments only)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on acp-2022-468', Anonymous Referee #2, 28 Aug 2022
  • RC2: 'Comment on acp-2022-468', Anonymous Referee #3, 28 Aug 2022
  • RC3: 'Comment on acp-2022-468', Anonymous Referee #1, 30 Aug 2022

Xiao He et al.


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Short summary
With the use of two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC ToF-MS), we successfully give a comprehensive characterization of the particulate I/SVOCs emitted from heavy-duty diesel vehicles. I/SVOCs are speciated, identified, and quantified based on the patterns of the mass spectrum and the gas-particle partitioning are fully addressed.