Quantifying the drivers of surface ozone anomalies in the urban areas over the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
- 1Key Laboratory of Environmental Optics and Technology, Anhui Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, HFIPS, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031, China
- 2Department of Precision Machinery and Precision Instrumentation, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, China
- 3University of Bremen, Institute of Environmental Physics, P. O. Box 330440, 28334 Bremen, Germany
- 4Anhui Province Key Laboratory of Polar Environment and Global Change, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, China
- 5Center for Excellence in Regional Atmospheric Environment, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021, China
- 6Key Laboratory of Precision Scientific Instrumentation of Anhui Higher Education Institutes, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, China
- These authors contributed equally to this work.
Abstract. Improved knowledge of the chemistry and drivers of surface ozone over the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) is significant for regulatory and control purposes in this high-altitude region in the Himalaya. In this study, we investigate the processes and drivers of surface ozone anomalies (defined as deviations of ozone levels relative to their seasonal means) between 2015 and 2020 in urban areas over the QTP. We separate quantitatively the contributions of anthropogenic emissions and meteorology to surface ozone anomalies by using the random forest (RF) machine learning model based meteorological normalization method. Diurnal and seasonal surface ozone anomalies over the QTP were mainly driven by meteorological conditions, such as temperature, planetary boundary layer height, surface incoming shortwave flux, downward transport velocity, and inter-annual anomalies were mainly driven by anthropogenic emission. Depending on region and measurement hour, diurnal surface ozone anomalies varied over -27.82 μg/m3 to 37.11 μg/m3, where meteorological and anthropogenic contributions varied over -33.88 μg/m3 to 35.86 μg/m3 and -4.32 μg/m3 to 4.05 μg/m3, respectively. Exceptional meteorology driven 97 % of surface ozone nonattainment events from 2015 to 2020 in the urban areas over the QTP. Monthly averaged surface ozone anomalies varied with much smaller amplitudes than their diurnal anomalies, where meteorological and anthropogenic contributions varied over 7.63 μg/m3 to 55.61 μg/m3 and 3.67 μg/m3 to 35.28 μg/m3 from 2015 to 2020, respectively. The inter-annual trends of surface ozone anomalies in Ngari, Lhasa, Naqu, Qamdo, Diqing, Haixi and Guoluo can be attributed to anthropogenic emissions by 95.77 %, 96.30 %, 97.83 %, 82.30 %, 99.26 %, and 87.85 %, and meteorology by 4.23 %, 3.70 %, 2.17 %, 3.19 %, 0.74 %, and 12.15 %, respectively. The inter-annual trends of surface ozone in other cities were fully driven by anthropogenic emission, where the increasing inter-annual trends would have larger values if not for the favorable meteorological conditions. This study can not only improve our knowledge with respect to spatiotemporal variability of surface ozone but also provides valuable implication for ozone mitigation over the QTP.
Hao Yin et al.
Hao Yin et al.
Hao Yin et al.
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