06 Apr 2022
06 Apr 2022
Status: this preprint is currently under review for the journal ACP.

Investigation of the limonene photooxidation by OH at different NO concentrations in the atmospheric simulation chamber SAPHIR

Jacky Yat Sing Pang1, Anna Novelli1, Martin Kaminski1,a, Ismail-Hakki Acir1,b, Birger Bohn1, Philip Thomas Michael Carlsson1, Changmin Cho1,c, Hans-Peter Dorn1, Andreas Hofzumahaus1, Xin Li1,d, Anna Lutz2, Sascha Nehr1,e, David Reimer1, Franz Rohrer1, Ralf Tillmann1, Robert Wegener1, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr1, Andreas Wahner1, and Hendrik Fuchs1 Jacky Yat Sing Pang et al.
  • 1Institute of Energy and Climate Research, IEK-8: Troposphere, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Jülich, Germany
  • 2Department of Chemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden
  • anow at: Federal Office of Consumer Protection and Food Safety, Department 5: Method Standardisation, Reference Laboratories, Resistance to Antibiotics, Berlin, Germany
  • bnow at: Institute of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Food Science, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany
  • cnow at: Atmospheric Trace Molecule Sensing Laboratory, School of Earth Sciences and Environmental Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju, Republic of Korea
  • dnow at: State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing, China
  • enow at: CBS International Business School, Brühl, Germany

Abstract. The oxidation of limonene by the hydroxyl (OH) radical and ozone (O3) was investigated in the atmospheric simulation chamber SAPHIR in experiments performed at different nitric oxide (NO) mixing ratios from nearly zero up to 10 ppbv. For the experiments dominated by OH oxidation the formaldehyde (HCHO) yield was experimentally determined and found to be (12 ± 3), (13 ± 3), and (32 ± 5) % for experiments with low (~0.1 ppbv), medium (~0.3 ppbv), and high NO (5 to 10 ppbv), respectively. The yield in an ozonolysis-only experiment was (10 ± 1) %, which agrees with previous laboratory studies. The experimental yield of the first generation organic nitrates from limonene-OH oxidation is calculated as (34 ± 5) %, about 11 % higher than the value in the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM), which is derived from structure-activity-relationships (SAR). Time series of measured radicals, trace-gas concentrations, and OH reactivity are compared to results from zero-dimensional chemical box model calculations applying the MCM v3.3.1. Modelled OH reactivity is 5 to 10 s-1 (25 % to 33 % of the OH reactivity at the start of the experiment) higher than measured values at the end of the experiments at all chemical conditions investigated, suggesting either that there are unaccounted loss processes of limonene oxidation products or that products are less reactive toward OH. In addition, model calculations underestimate measured hydroperoxyl radical (HO2) concentrations by 20 % to 90 % and overestimate organic peroxyl radical (RO2) concentrations by 50 % to 300 %. Largest deviations are found in low-NO experiments and in the ozonolysis experiment. An OH radical budget analysis, which uses only measured quantities, shows that the budget is closed in most of the experiments. A similar budget analysis for RO2 radicals suggests that an additional RO2 loss rate of about (1–6) × 10-2 s-1 for first-generation RO2 is required to match the measured RO2 concentrations in all experiments. Sensitivity model runs indicate that additional reactions converting RO2 to HO2 at a rate of about (1.7–3.0) × 10-2 s-1 would improve the model-measurement agreement of NOx, HO2, RO2 concentrations, and OH reactivity. Reaction pathways that could lead to the production of additional OH and HO2 are discussed, which include isomerisation reactions of RO2 from the oxidation of limonene, different branching ratios for the reaction of RO2 with HO2, and a faster rate constant for RO2 recombination reactions. As the exact chemical mechanisms of the additional HO2 and OH sources could not be identified, further work needs to focus on quantifying organic product species and organic peroxy radicals from limonene oxidation.

Jacky Yat Sing Pang et al.

Status: final response (author comments only)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on acp-2022-239', Anonymous Referee #1, 03 May 2022
  • RC2: 'Comment on acp-2022-239', Anonymous Referee #2, 11 May 2022

Jacky Yat Sing Pang et al.

Jacky Yat Sing Pang et al.


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Short summary
This study investigates the radical chemical budget during the limonene oxidation at different atmospheric-relevant NO concentrations in chamber experiments under atmospheric conditions. It is found that the model-measurements discrepancies of HO2 and RO2 are very large at low NO concentrations that are typical for forested environments. Possible additional processes impacting HO2 and RO2 concentrations are discussed.