21 Feb 2022
21 Feb 2022
Status: a revised version of this preprint is currently under review for the journal ACP.

How are the gravity waves triggered by typhoon propagate from the troposphere to upper atmosphere?

Qinzeng Li1, Jiyao Xu1,2, Hanli Liu3, Xiao Liu4, and Wei Yuan1 Qinzeng Li et al.
  • 1State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190, China
  • 2School of Astronomy and Space Science, University of Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing, 100049, China
  • 3High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO 80307-3000, USA
  • 4School of Mathematics and Information Science, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, 453007, China

Abstract. Gravity waves (GWs) strongly affect atmospheric dynamics, and photochemistry, as well as the coupling between the troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, and thermosphere. Also, GWs generated by strong disturbances in the troposphere (such as thunderstorms, typhoons, etc.) can affect the atmosphere of the Earth ranging from the troposphere to the thermosphere. However, the fundamental process of GW propagation from the troposphere to the thermosphere is poorly understood because it is challenging to constrain this process by observations. Moreover, GWs tend to dissipate rapidly in the thermosphere because the molecular diffusion increases exponentially. In this study, a double-layer airglow network is used to capture the concentric gravity waves (CGWs) over China, which were excited by the Super Typhoon Chaba (2016). We used the ERA-5 reanalysis data and Multi-functional Transport Satellite-1R observations and quantitatively described the physical mechanism of typhoon-generated CGWs propagating throughout the stratosphere, mesosphere, and thermosphere. We found that the CGWs in the mesopause region were generated directly by the typhoon in the troposphere. However, the backward ray tracing analysis revealed that CGWs in the thermosphere originated from the secondary waves generated by the dissipation of the CGW in the mesopause region, thereby resembling the relay in the context.

Qinzeng Li et al.

Status: final response (author comments only)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on acp-2021-952', Anonymous Referee #1, 26 Feb 2022
  • RC3: 'Comment on acp-2021-952', Anonymous Referee #2, 12 Apr 2022

Qinzeng Li et al.

Qinzeng Li et al.


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Short summary
We use ground-based airglow network observations, reanalysis data, and satellite observations to explore the whole propagation process of the CGWs excited by typhoon among the troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, and thermosphere. We find that the CGWs in the mesosphere are generated directly by the typhoon but the CGW observed in the thermosphere may be excited by the CGW dissipation in the mesosphere, rather than directly excited by the typhoon and propagated to the thermosphere.