Preprints
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2021-93
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2021-93

  15 Mar 2021

15 Mar 2021

Review status: a revised version of this preprint was accepted for the journal ACP and is expected to appear here in due course.

Measurement report: Effect of wind shear on PM10 concentration vertical structure in urban boundary layer in a complex terrain

Piotr Sekuła1,2, Anita Bokwa3, Jakub Bartyzel1, Bogdan Bochenek2, Łukasz Chmura1,2, Michał Gałkowski1,4, and Mirosław Zimnoch1 Piotr Sekuła et al.
  • 1Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH-University of Science and Technology, 19 Reymonta St., 30-059 Kraków, Poland
  • 2Institute of Meteorology and Water Management, National Research Institute, Branch of Kraków, 14 Piotra Borowego St., 30-215 Kraków, Poland
  • 3Institute of Geography and Spatial Management, Jagiellonian University, 7 Gronostajowa St., 30-387 Kraków, Poland
  • 4Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, Department of Biogeochemical Signals, Hans-Knoll-Str. 10, 07745 Jena, Germany

Abstract. The paper shows wind shear impact on PM10 vertical profiles, in Kraków, southern Poland. The data used consist of background data for two cold seasons (Sep. 2018 to Apr. 2019, and Sep. 2019 to Apr. 2020), and data for several case studies from November 2019 to March 2020. The data is composed of PM10 measurements, model data, and wind speed and direction data. The background model data come from operational forecast results of AROME model. PM10 concentration in the vertical profile was measured with a sightseeing balloon. Significant spatial variability of wind field was found. The case studies represent the conditions with much lower wind speed and a much higher PM10 levels than the seasonal average. The inversions were much more frequent than on average, too. Wind shear turned out to be the most important factor in terms of PM10 vertical profile modification. It is generated due to the relief impact, i.e. the presence of a large valley, blocked on one side with the hills. The analysis of PM10 profiles from all flights allows to distinguish three vertical zones of potential air pollution hazard within the valley (about 100 m deep) and the city of Kraków: 1. up to about 60 m a.g.l. – the zone where during periods of low wind speed, air pollution is potentially the highest and the duration of such high levels is the longest, i.e. the zone with the worst aerosanitary conditions; 2. about 60–100 m a.g.l. – transitional zone where the large decrease of PM10 levels with height is observed; 3. above 100–120 m a.g.l. – the zone where air quality is significantly better than in the zone 1, either due to the increase of the wind speed, or due to the wind direction change and advection of different, clean air masses.

Piotr Sekuła et al.

Status: closed

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on acp-2021-93', Tadeusz Niedzwiedz, 13 Apr 2021
    • AC1: 'Reply on RC1', Anita Bokwa, 15 Apr 2021
  • RC2: 'Comment on acp-2021-93', Anonymous Referee #2, 16 Apr 2021
    • AC2: 'Reply on RC2', Anita Bokwa, 10 May 2021

Status: closed

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on acp-2021-93', Tadeusz Niedzwiedz, 13 Apr 2021
    • AC1: 'Reply on RC1', Anita Bokwa, 15 Apr 2021
  • RC2: 'Comment on acp-2021-93', Anonymous Referee #2, 16 Apr 2021
    • AC2: 'Reply on RC2', Anita Bokwa, 10 May 2021

Piotr Sekuła et al.

Piotr Sekuła et al.

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Short summary
The wind shear generated in a local scale by the diversified relief's impact can be a factor which significantly modifies the spatial pattern of PM10 concentration. The vertical profile of PM10 over a city located in a large valley during the events with high surface-level PM10 concentrations may show a sudden decrease with height not only due to the increase of wind speed, but also due to the change of wind direction alone. Vertical aerosanitary urban zones can be distinguished.
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