Preprints
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2021-9
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2021-9

  01 Feb 2021

01 Feb 2021

Review status: a revised version of this preprint is currently under review for the journal ACP.

A large-eddy simulation study of deep-convection initiation through the collision of two sea-breeze fronts

Shizuo Fu1,2, Richard Rotunno3, Huiwen Xue4, Jinghua Chen5, and Xin Deng6 Shizuo Fu et al.
  • 1Key Laboratory for Humid Subtropical Eco-Geographical Processes of the Ministry of Education, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou, China
  • 2School of Geographical Sciences, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou, China
  • 3National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado
  • 4Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing, China
  • 5Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters, and Key Laboratory for Aerosol–Cloud–Precipitation of the China Meteorological Administration, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing, China
  • 6College of Agriculture, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, Fujian, China

Abstract. Large-eddy simulations are performed to investigate the process of deep-convection initiation (DCI) over a peninsula. In each simulation, two sea-breeze circulations develop over the two coasts. The two sea-breeze fronts move inland and collide, producing strong instability and strong updrafts near the centerline of the domain, and consequently leading to DCI. In the simulation with a maximum total heat flux over land of 700 or 500 W m−2, DCI is accomplished through the development of three generations of convection. The first generation of convection is randomly produced through the collision of the sea-breeze fronts. The second generation of convection is produced mainly through the collision of the sea-breeze fronts, but only develops in regions where no strong downdrafts are produced by the first generation of convection. The third generation of convection mainly develops from the intersection points of the cold pools produced by the second generation of convection, and is produced through the collision between gust fronts and sea-breeze fronts. As the maximum total heat flux decreases from 700 to 500 W m−2, both the height and strength of the sea breezes are reduced, inhibiting the forcing of the first two generations of convection. These two generations of convection therefore become weaker. The weaker second generation of convection produces shallower cold pools, reducing the forcing of the third generation, and consequently weakening the third generation of convection. As the maximum total heat flux further decreases to 300 W m−2, only one generation of shallow convection is produced.

Shizuo Fu et al.

Status: final response (author comments only)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on acp-2021-9', Daniel Kirshbaum, 25 Feb 2021
  • RC2: 'Comment on acp-2021-9', Anonymous Referee #2, 09 Mar 2021
  • AC1: 'Response to both referees', Shizuo Fu, 06 May 2021

Shizuo Fu et al.

Shizuo Fu et al.

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Short summary
Deep-convection initiation (DCI) determines when and where deep convection develops, and hence affects both weather and climate. However, our understanding of DCI is still limited. Here we simulate DCI over a peninsula using large-eddy simulation and high output frequency. We find that DCI is accomplished through the development of multiple generations of convection, and the earlier generation affects the later generation by producing downdrafts and cold pools.
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