Preprints
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2021-721
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2021-721

  31 Aug 2021

31 Aug 2021

Review status: this preprint is currently under review for the journal ACP.

Long-term fluxes of carbonyl sulfide and their seasonality and interannual variability in a boreal forest

Timo Vesala1,2,3, Kukka-Maaria Kohonen1, Arnaud P. Praplan4, Linda M. J. Kooijmans5, Lenka Foltýnová6, Pasi Kolari1, Markku Kulmala1, Jaana Bäck2, David Nelson7, Dan Yakir8, Mark Zahniser7, and Ivan Mammarella1 Timo Vesala et al.
  • 1Institute for Atmospheric and Earth System Research/Physics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
  • 2Institute for Atmospheric and Earth System Research/Forest Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
  • 3Yugra State University, 628012, Khanty-Mansiysk, Russia
  • 4Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland
  • 5Meteorology and Air Quality, Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands
  • 6Global Change Research Institute, Czech Academy of Sciences, Brno, Czech Republic
  • 7Aerodyne Research Inc., Billerica, MA, USA
  • 8Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel

Abstract. The seasonality and interannual variability of terrestrial carbonyl sulfide (COS) fluxes are poorly constrained. We present the first easy-to-use parameterization for net COS forest sink based on the longest eddy covariance record from a boreal pine forest, covering 32 months over 5 years. Fluxes from hourly to yearly scales are reported, with the aim of revealing controlling factors and the level of interannual variability. The parameterization is based on the photosynthetically active radiation, vapor pressure deficit, air temperature, and leaf area index. The spring recovery of the flux after the winter dormancy period was mostly governed by air temperature, and the onset of the uptake varied by 2 weeks. For the first time, we report a significant reduction of ecosystem-scale COS flux under large water vapor pressure deficit in summer. The maximum monthly and weekly median COS uptake varied 26 and 20 % between years, respectively. The timing of the latter varied by 6 weeks. The fraction of the nocturnal uptake remained below 21 % of the total COS uptake. We observed the growing season (April–August) average net flux of COS totaling −58.0 gS ha−1 with 37 % interannual variability. The long-term flux observations were scaled up to evergreen needleleaf forests (ENFs) in the whole boreal region by the Simple Biosphere Model Version 4 (SiB4). The observations were closely simulated by using SiB4 meteorological drivers and phenology. The total COS uptake by boreal ENF was in line with a missing COS sink at high latitudes pointed out in earlier studies.

Timo Vesala et al.

Status: open (until 12 Oct 2021)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on acp-2021-721', Jürgen Kesselmeier, 03 Sep 2021 reply
  • RC2: 'Comment on acp-2021-721', M.E. Whelan, 09 Sep 2021 reply
  • RC3: 'Comment on acp-2021-721', Anonymous Referee #3, 10 Sep 2021 reply

Timo Vesala et al.

Timo Vesala et al.

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Short summary
Carbonyl sulfide (COS) provides new insights into carbon cycle research and impacts the climate. We present an easy-to-use flux parameterization and the longest forest-atmosphere COS exchange measurements, allowing to study both seasonal and interannual variability. We observed only uptake of COS by the forest on annual basis, with 37 % variability between years. Upscaling the boreal COS uptake by a biosphere model indicates a significant missing COS sink at high latitudes.
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