Preprints
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2021-712
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2021-712

  15 Oct 2021

15 Oct 2021

Review status: this preprint is currently under review for the journal ACP.

Sources and processes of iron aerosols in a megacity of Eastern China

Yanhong Zhu1, Weijun Li1, Yue Wang1, Jian Zhang1, Lei Liu1, Liang Xu1, Jingsha Xu2, Jinhui Shi3, Longyi Shao4, Pingqing Fu5, Daizhou Zhang6, and Zongbo Shi7 Yanhong Zhu et al.
  • 1Department of Atmospheric Sciences, School of Earth Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, Zhejiang, China
  • 2Department of Chemistry, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL, UK
  • 3Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science and Ecology, Ocean University of China, Ministry of Education of China, Qingdao 266010, China
  • 4State Key Laboratory of Coal Resources and Safe Mining, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing 100086, China
  • 5Institute of Surface-Earth System Science, School of Earth System Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China
  • 6Faculty of Environmental and Symbiotic Sciences, Prefectural University of Kumamoto, Kumamoto 862-8502, Japan
  • 7School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK

Abstract. Iron (Fe) in aerosol particles is a major external source of micronutrients for marine ecosystems, and poses a potential threat to human health. To understand these impacts of aerosol Fe, it is essential to quantify the sources of dissolved and total Fe. In this study, we applied a receptor modelling for the first time to apportion the sources of dissolved and total Fe in fine particles collected under five different weather conditions in Hangzhou megacity of Eastern China, which is upwind of East Asian outflow. Results showed that Fe solubility (dissolved to total Fe) was the largest in fog days (6.3 ± 2.6 %), followed by haze (4.6 ± 1.9 %), dust (2.1 ± 0.7 %), clear (1.7 ± 0.6 %), and rain (0.8 ± 0.3 %) days. Positive Matrix Factorisation (PMF) analysis suggested that industrial and traffic emissions were the two dominant primary sources of dissolved and total Fe during haze and fog days, but dust was the dominant source in dust days. About 15 % of dissolved Fe was associated with secondary sources during haze and fog days, although it was less than 5 % during dust and clear days. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of individual particles showed that approximately 76 % and 87 % of Fe-containing particles were internally mixed with acidic sulfates and nitrates in haze and fog days, respectively. Our results indicated that aqueous surface of aerosol particles promotes heterogeneous reactions between acidic species and Fe aerosol, contributing to higher Fe solubility during fog and haze days.

Yanhong Zhu et al.

Status: final response (author comments only)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on acp-2021-712', Anonymous Referee #2, 29 Oct 2021
  • RC2: 'Comment on acp-2021-712', Anonymous Referee #1, 02 Nov 2021

Yanhong Zhu et al.

Yanhong Zhu et al.

Viewed

Total article views: 566 (including HTML, PDF, and XML)
HTML PDF XML Total Supplement BibTeX EndNote
432 118 16 566 31 6 14
  • HTML: 432
  • PDF: 118
  • XML: 16
  • Total: 566
  • Supplement: 31
  • BibTeX: 6
  • EndNote: 14
Views and downloads (calculated since 15 Oct 2021)
Cumulative views and downloads (calculated since 15 Oct 2021)

Viewed (geographical distribution)

Total article views: 514 (including HTML, PDF, and XML) Thereof 514 with geography defined and 0 with unknown origin.
Country # Views %
  • 1
1
 
 
 
 
Latest update: 01 Dec 2021
Download
Short summary
The solubilities of iron in fine particles in a megacity in southern China were studied under haze, fog, dust, clear, and rain weather conditions. For the first time, a receptor model was used to quantify the sources of dissolved and total iron aerosol. Microscopic analysis further confirmed aging of iron aerosol during haze and fog conditions that facilitated dissolution of insoluble iron.
Altmetrics