Preprints
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2021-686
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2021-686

  26 Aug 2021

26 Aug 2021

Review status: this preprint is currently under review for the journal ACP.

Relative importance and interactions of primary and secondary ice production in the Arctic mixed-phase clouds

Xi Zhao and Xiaohong Liu Xi Zhao and Xiaohong Liu
  • Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77840, USA

Abstract. A discrepancy of up to 5 orders of magnitude between ice crystal and ice nucleating particle (INP) number concentrations was found in the measurements, indicating the potential important role of secondary ice production (SIP) in the clouds. However, the relative importance and interactions between primary and SIP processes remain unexplored. In this study, we implement five different ice nucleation schemes as well as physical representations of SIP processes (i.e., droplet shattering during rain freezing, ice-ice collisional break-up, and rime splintering) in the Community Earth System Model version 2 (CESM2). We run CESM2 in the single column mode for model comparisons with the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (M-PACE) observations. We find that the model experiments with aerosol-aware ice nucleation schemes and SIP processes yield the best simulation results for the M-PACE single-layer mixed-phase clouds. We further investigate the relative importance of ice nucleation and SIP to ice number and cloud phase as well as interactions between ice nucleation and SIP in the M-PACE single-layer mixed-phase clouds. Our results show that SIP contributes 80 % to the total ice formation and transforms ~ 30 % of pure liquid-phase clouds simulated in the model experiments without considering SIP into mixed-phase clouds. We find that SIP is not only a result of ice crystals produced from ice nucleation, but also competes with the ice nucleation. Conversely, strong ice nucleation also suppresses SIP by glaciating mixed-phase clouds.

Xi Zhao and Xiaohong Liu

Status: final response (author comments only)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on acp-2021-686', Anonymous Referee #1, 06 Sep 2021
  • RC2: 'Comment on acp-2021-686', Anonymous Referee #2, 12 Sep 2021
  • RC3: 'Comment on acp-2021-686', Anonymous Referee #3, 13 Sep 2021

Xi Zhao and Xiaohong Liu

Xi Zhao and Xiaohong Liu

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Short summary
The goal of this study is to investigate the relative importance and interactions of primary and secondary ice production in the Arctic mixed-phase clouds. Our results show that the SIP is not only a result of ice crystals produced from ice nucleation, but also competes with the ice production; conversely, strong ice nucleation also suppresses SIP.
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