Preprints
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2021-653
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2021-653

  31 Aug 2021

31 Aug 2021

Review status: this preprint is currently under review for the journal ACP.

Persistence of moist plumes from overshooting convection in the Asian monsoon anticyclone

Sergey Khaykin1, Elizabeth Moyer2, Martina Krämer3, Benjamin Clouser2, Silvia Bucci4,a, Bernard Legras4, Alexey Lykov5, Armin Afchine3, Francesco Cairo6, Ivan Formanyuk5, Valentin Mitev7, Renaud Matthey8, Christian Rolf3, Clare Singer2,b, Nicole Spelten3, Vasily Volkov5, Vladimir Yushkov5, and Fred Stroh3 Sergey Khaykin et al.
  • 1Laboratoire Atmosphères, Observations Spatiales (LATMOS), UVSQ, Sorbonne Université, CNRS, IPSL, Guyancourt, France
  • 2Dept. of the Geophysical Sciences, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA
  • 3Forschungszentrum Jülich, Institut für Energie und Klimaforschung (IEK-7), Germany
  • 4Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique (LMD), CNRS, IPSL, ENS-PSL, École Polytechnique, Sorbonne Université, Paris, France
  • 5Central Aerological Observatory of RosHydroMet, Dolgoprudny, Russian Federation
  • 6National Research Council of Italy, Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate (CNR-ISAC), Rome, Italy
  • 7Centre Suisse d’Electronique et de Microtechnique Neuchâtel, Switzerland
  • 8University of Neuchâtel, Neuchâtel, Switzerland
  • anow at: Institut für Meteorologie und Geophysik, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
  • bnow at: Dept. of Environmental Science and Engineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA

Abstract. The Asian Monsoon Anticyclone (AMA) represents the wettest region in the lower stratosphere (LS) and is the key contributor to the global annual maximum in LS water vapour. While the AMA wet pool is linked with persistent convection in the region and horizontal confinement of the anticyclone, there remain ambiguities regarding the role of tropopause-overshooting convection in maintaining the regional LS water vapour maximum. This study tackles this issue using a unique set of observations from onboard the high-altitude M55-Geophysica aircraft deployed in Nepal in Summer 2017 within the EU StratoClim project. We use a combination of airborne measurements (water vapour, ice water, water isotopes, cloud backscatter) together with ensemble trajectory modeling coupled with satellite observations to characterize the processes controlling water vapour and clouds in the confined lower stratosphere (CLS) of AMA. Our analysis puts in evidence the dual role of overshooting convection, which may lead to hydration or dehydration depending on the synoptic-scale tropopause temperatures in AMA. We show that all of the observed CLS water vapour enhancements are traceable to convective events within AMA and furthermore bear an isotopic signature of the overshooting process. A surprising result is that the plumes of moist air with mixing ratios nearly twice the background level can persist for weeks whilst recirculating within the anticyclone, without being subject to irreversible dehydration through ice settling. Our findings highlight the importance of convection and recirculation within AMA for the transport of water into the stratosphere.

Sergey Khaykin et al.

Status: final response (author comments only)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Review of “Persistence of moist plumes from overshooting convection in the Asian monsoon anticyclone” by Sergey M. Khaykin et al.', Anonymous Referee #1, 27 Sep 2021
  • RC2: 'Comment on acp-2021-653', Anonymous Referee #2, 05 Oct 2021
  • RC3: 'Comment on acp-2021-653', Anonymous Referee #3, 05 Oct 2021

Sergey Khaykin et al.

Data sets

Mission: StratoClim DLR (German Aerospace Center) https://halo-db.pa.op.dlr.de/mission/116

Video supplement

Supplementary animation of the article by Khaykin et al. Persistence of moist plumes from overshooting convection in the Asian monsoon anticyclone Khaykin S., Legras B., Bucci S. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5168703

Sergey Khaykin et al.

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Short summary
The Asian Monsoon Anticyclone is the key contributor to the global annual maximum in lower stratospheric water vapour. We investigate the impact of deep convection on the lower stratospheric water using a unique set of observations onboard the high-altitude M55-Geophysica aircraft deployed in Nepal in Summer 2017 within the EU StratoClim project. We find that convective plumes of wet air can persist within the Asian anticyclone for weeks thereby enhancing the occurrence of high-level clouds.
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