Preprints
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2021-633
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2021-633

  05 Aug 2021

05 Aug 2021

Review status: this preprint is currently under review for the journal ACP.

Swiss halocarbon emissions for 2019 to 2020 assessed from regional atmospheric observations

Dominique Rust1,2, Ioannis Katharopoulos1,3, Martin K. Vollmer1, Stephan Henne1, Simon O'Doherty4, Daniel Say4, Lukas Emmenegger1, Renato Zenobi2, and Stefan Reimann1 Dominique Rust et al.
  • 1Laboratory for Air Pollution/Environmental Technology, Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technologies, Dübendorf, Switzerland
  • 2Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, ETH, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich, Switzerland
  • 3Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science, ETH, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich, Switzerland
  • 4Atmospheric Chemistry Research Group, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK

Abstract. Halocarbons are emitted by various anthropogenic activities to the atmosphere, where they contribute to global warming and stratospheric ozone-depletion. To determine national halocarbon emissions, the so-called "top-down" approach relies on atmospheric observations, at sites that reflect emissions on a country level, and com-bines these observations with inverse modelling methods. In this study, we present 12 months (September 2019 to September 2020) of continuous atmospheric observations of 28 halocarbons from a measurement campaign at the Beromünster tall tower in Switzerland. The site is sensitive to the most densely populated area of Switzer-land, the Swiss Plateau, thus the measurements were well suited to derive Swiss halocarbon emissions. Emissions were calculated by two different top-down methods, a tracer-ratio method (TRM) with carbon monoxide (CO) as the independent tracer, and a Bayesian inversion (BI), based on atmospheric transport simulations using FLEXPART–COSMO. The results were compared to previously reported top-down emission estimates, based on measurements at the high-Alpine site Jungfraujoch, and to the "bottom-up" Swiss national greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory, as annually reported to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UN-FCCC). We observed ongoing outgassing from existing foams and refrigerators for the ozone-depleting, banned chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and the regulated hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), confirming their large historical use. For the major hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) HFC-125 (CHF2CF3) and HFC-32 (CH2F2), our calcu-lated emissions of 99 ± 29 Mg yr−1 and 46 ± 13 Mg yr−1 were in good agreement with the national Swiss inventory values, whereas for HFC 134a (CH2FCF3) our result of 300 ± 85 Mg yr−1 was about 30 % lower than the UNFCCC reported value. For the other investigated HFCs, perfluorocarbons (PFCs), SF6 and NF3, emissions were small and in agreement with the inventory. Finally, we report the first country-based emission estimates of a total of 50 Mg yr−1 for three recently phased-in, unregulated hydrofluoroolefins (HFOs), HFO 1234yf (CF3CF=CH2), HFO-1234ze(E) ((E)-CF3CH=CHF) and HCFO-1233zd(E) ((E) CF3CH=CHCl).

Dominique Rust et al.

Status: final response (author comments only)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on acp-2021-633', Anonymous Referee #1, 31 Aug 2021
  • RC2: 'Comment on acp-2021-633', Anonymous Referee #2, 09 Sep 2021

Dominique Rust et al.

Dominique Rust et al.

Viewed

Total article views: 411 (including HTML, PDF, and XML)
HTML PDF XML Total Supplement BibTeX EndNote
322 83 6 411 27 2 2
  • HTML: 322
  • PDF: 83
  • XML: 6
  • Total: 411
  • Supplement: 27
  • BibTeX: 2
  • EndNote: 2
Views and downloads (calculated since 05 Aug 2021)
Cumulative views and downloads (calculated since 05 Aug 2021)

Viewed (geographical distribution)

Total article views: 414 (including HTML, PDF, and XML) Thereof 414 with geography defined and 0 with unknown origin.
Country # Views %
  • 1
1
 
 
 
 
Latest update: 23 Oct 2021
Download
Short summary
Man-made halocarbons contribute to ozone-layer depletion and to global warming. We measured the atmospheric concentrations of halocarbons at the Beromünster-tower, modeled the Swiss emissions, and compared the results to the internationally reported Swiss emissions inventory. For most of the halocarbons we found good agreement, whereas one refrigerant might be overestimated in the inventory. In addition, we present first emission estimates of the newest type of halocarbons.
Altmetrics