05 Aug 2021

05 Aug 2021

Review status: this preprint is currently under review for the journal ACP.

Relative Importance of High-Latitude Local and Long-Range Transported Dust to Arctic Ice Nucleating Particles and Impacts on Arctic Mixed-Phase Clouds

Yang Shi1, Xiaohong Liu1, Mingxuan Wu2, Ziming Ke1, and Hunter Brown1 Yang Shi et al.
  • 1Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA
  • 2Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, USA

Abstract. Dust particles, serving as ice nucleating particles (INPs), may impact the Arctic surface energy budget and regional climate by modulating the mixed-phase cloud properties and lifetime. In addition to long-range transport from low latitude deserts, dust particles in the Arctic can originate from local sources. However, the importance of high latitude dust (HLD) as a source of Arctic INPs (compared to low latitude dust (LLD)) and its effects on Arctic mixed-phase clouds are overlooked. In this study, we evaluate the contribution to Arctic dust loading and INP population from HLD and six LLD source regions by implementing a source-tagging technique for dust aerosols in version 1 of the US Department of Energy’s Energy Exascale Earth System Model (E3SMv1). Our results show that HLD is responsible for 30.7 % of the total dust burden in the Arctic, whereas LLD from Asia and North Africa contribute 44.2 % and 24.2 %, respectively. Due to its limited vertical transport as a result of stable boundary layers, HLD contributes more in the lower troposphere, especially in boreal summer and autumn when the HLD emissions are stronger. LLD from North Africa and East Asia dominates the dust loading in the upper troposphere with peak contributions in boreal spring and winter. The modeled INP concentrations show a better agreement with both ground and aircraft INP measurements in the Arctic when including HLD INPs. The HLD INPs are found to induce a net cooling effect (−0.24 W m−2 above 60° N) on the Arctic surface downwelling radiative flux by changing the cloud phase of the Arctic mixed-phase clouds. The magnitude of this cooling is larger than those induced by North African and East Asian dust (0.08 and −0.06 W m−2, respectively), mainly due to different seasonalities of HLD and LLD. Uncertainties of this study are discussed, which highlights the importance of further constraining the HLD emissions.

Yang Shi et al.

Status: final response (author comments only)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Review for Shi et al. entitled “Relative importance of high-latitude local and long-range transported dust to Arctic ice nucleating particles and impacts on Arctic mixed-phase clouds“, submitted to Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics', Anonymous Referee #1, 29 Aug 2021
  • RC2: 'Comment on acp-2021-621', Anonymous Referee #2, 19 Sep 2021

Yang Shi et al.


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Short summary
We perform a modeling study to evaluate the contribution to Arctic dust loading and INP population from high latitude local dust and low latitude dust. We find that high latitude dust has large contribution in the lower troposphere, while the low latitude dust dominates the upper troposphere. The high latitude dust INPs result in a net cooling effect on the Arctic surface by glaciating mixed-phase clouds. Our results highlight the contribution of high latitude dust to the Arctic climate.