Preprints
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2021-557
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2021-557

  15 Jul 2021

15 Jul 2021

Review status: a revised version of this preprint is currently under review for the journal ACP.

Secondary ice production during the break-up of freezing water drops on impact with ice particles

Rachel L. James1, Vaughan T. J. Phillips2, and Paul J. Connolly1 Rachel L. James et al.
  • 1Department of Earth and Environmental Science, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK
  • 2University of Lund, Lund, Sweden

Abstract. We experimentally investigated collisions of supercooled water drops (∼ 5 mm in diameter) with ice particles of a similar size placed on a glass slide at temperatures T ≥ −12 °C. Our results showed that secondary drops were generated during both the spreading and retraction phase of the supercooled water drop impact. The secondary drops generated during the spreading phase were emitted too fast to quantify. However, quantification of the secondary drops generated during the retraction phase with diameters > 0.1 mm showed that 5–10 secondary drops formed per collision, with approximately 30 % of the secondary drops freezing over a temperature range of −4 °C ≤ T ≤ −12 °C. Our investigation provides the first dedicated laboratory study of collisions of supercooled water drops with ice particles as a secondary ice production mechanism. Our results suggest that this secondary ice production mechanism may be significant for ice formation in atmospheric clouds containing large supercooled drops and ice particles.

Rachel L. James et al.

Status: final response (author comments only)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on acp-2021-557', Anonymous Referee #1, 05 Aug 2021
  • RC2: 'Comment on acp-2021-557', Anonymous Referee #2, 24 Aug 2021
  • RC3: 'Comment on acp-2021-557', Sylvia Sullivan, 24 Aug 2021

Rachel L. James et al.

Video supplement

Secondary ice production during the break-up of freezing water drops on impact with ice particles Rachel L. James, Vaughan T. J. Phillips and Paul J. Connolly https://figshare.com/s/a55a8eb38872c4c46020

Rachel L. James et al.

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Short summary
Secondary ice production (SIP) plays an important role in ice formation within mixed-phase clouds. We present a laboratory investigation of a potentially new SIP mechanism involving the collisions of supercooled water drops with ice particles. At impact, the supercooled water drop fragments forming smaller secondary drops. Approximately 30 % of the secondary drops formed during the retraction phase of the supercooled water drop impact freeze over a temperature range of −4 °C to −12 °C.
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