Preprints
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2021-311
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2021-311

  09 Jun 2021

09 Jun 2021

Review status: a revised version of this preprint was accepted for the journal ACP and is expected to appear here in due course.

Measurement report: Spatiotemporal and policy-related variations of PM2.5 compositions and sources during 2015–2019 at multisite of a Chinese megacity

Xinyao Feng1, Yingze Tian1,2, Qianqian Xue1, Danlin Song3, Fengxia Huang3, and Yinchang Feng1 Xinyao Feng et al.
  • 1State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Urban Ambient Air Particulate Matter Pollution Prevention and Control, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin, 300071, China
  • 2CMA-NKU Cooperative Laboratory for Atmospheric Environment-Health Research (CLAER/CMA-NKU)
  • 3Chengdu Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, China

Abstract. A thorough understanding of the relationship between urbanization and PM2.5 (fine particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 µm) variation is crucial for researchers and policymakers to study health effects and improve air quality. In this study, we selected a fast-developing Chinese megacity as the studied area to investigate the spatiotemporal and policy-related variations of PM2.5 compositions and sources based on a long-term observation at multisite. A total of 836 samples were collected at 19 sites in wintertime of 2015–2019. According to the specific characteristics, 19 sampling sites were assigned into three layers. Layer 1 was the most urbanized area referred to the core zone of Chengdu, layer 2 was located in the outside circle of layer 1, and layer 3 belonged to the outer-most zone with the lowest urbanization level. The averaged PM2.5 concentrations for five years were in the order of layer 2 (133 µg m−3) > layer 1 (126 µg m−3) > layer 3 (121µg m−3). And for each year, the spatial clustering of chemical compositions at sampling sites was generally consistent with the classification of layers. PM2.5 compositions for layer 3 in 2019 were found to be similar to that for other layers two or three years ago, implying that the urbanization levels had a strong effect on air quality. During the sampled period, a decreasing trend was observed for the annual averaged PM2.5 concentrations, especially at sampling sites in layer 1, which was caused by the more strict control policies implemented in layer 1. The SO42−/NO3− mass ratio at most sites exceeded 1 in 2015 but dropped less than 1 since 2016, reflecting decreasing coal combustion and increasing traffic impacts in Chengdu. The positive matrix factorization (PMF) model was applied to quantify PM2.5 sources. A total of five sources were identified with the average contributions of 15.5 % (traffic emission), 19.7 % (coal and biomass combustion), 8.8 % (industrial emission), 39.7 % (secondary particles) and 16.2 % (resuspended dust), respectively. From 2015 to 2019, dramatical decline was observed in the average percentage contributions of coal and biomass combustion, but traffic emission source showed an increasing trend. For spatial variations, coal and biomass combustion and industrial emission showed the stronger distribution patterns. High contributions of resuspended dust were occurred at sites with intensive construction activities such as subway and airport constructions. Combining the PMF results, we developed the source weighted potential source contribution function (SWPSCF) method for source localization, this new method highlighted the influences of spatial distribution for source contributions, and the effectiveness of the SWPSCF method was well-evaluated.

Xinyao Feng et al.

Status: closed

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on acp-2021-311', Anonymous Referee #2, 30 Jul 2021
  • RC2: 'Comment on acp-2021-311', Anonymous Referee #1, 05 Aug 2021

Status: closed

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on acp-2021-311', Anonymous Referee #2, 30 Jul 2021
  • RC2: 'Comment on acp-2021-311', Anonymous Referee #1, 05 Aug 2021

Xinyao Feng et al.

Xinyao Feng et al.

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Short summary
This study focused on PM2.5 compositions and sources, and explored their spatiotemporal and policy-related variations based on observation at 19 sites during wintertime of 2015–2019 in a fast-developing megacity. We found that PM2.5 compositions for outer-most zone in 2019 were similar to that for core zone two or three years ago. Percentage contributions of coal and biomass combustion dramatically declined in core zone, while traffic source showed an increasing trend.
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