04 Jun 2021

04 Jun 2021

Review status: this preprint is currently under review for the journal ACP.

Mapping gaseous amines, ammonia, and their particulate counterparts in marine atmospheres of China's marginal seas: Part 2 – spatiotemporal heterogeneity, causes and hypothesis

Yating Gao1, Dihui Chen1, Yanjie Shen1, Yang Gao1,2, Huiwang Gao1,2, and Xiaohong Yao1,2 Yating Gao et al.
  • 1Key Laboratory of Marine Environment and Ecology, and Frontiers Science Center for Deep Ocean Multispheres and Earth System, Ministry of Education, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100, China
  • 2Laboratory for Marine Ecology and Environmental Science, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266237, China

Abstract. In this study, spatiotemporal heterogeneities in the concentrations of alkaline gases and their particulate counterparts in the marine atmosphere over China's marginal seas were investigated in terms of causes and chemical conversion during two winter cruise campaigns, using semi-continuous measurements made by an onboard URG-9000D Ambient Ion Monitor-Ion chromatograph (AIM-IC, Thermofisher). During the cruise campaign over the East China Sea on December 27, 2019–January 6, 2020, the concentrations of atmospheric trimethylamine (TMAgas) varied by approximately one order of magnitude, with an average (±standard deviation) of 0.10 ± 0.04 µg m−3. Corresponding means were 0.037 ± 0.011 µg m−3 over the Yellow Sea on 7–16 January 2020 and 0.031 ± 0.009 μg m−3 over the Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea on 9–22 December 2019. In contrast, the simultaneously observed concentrations of TMA in PM2.5, detected as TMAH+, over the East China Sea were 0.098 ± 0.068 µg m−3 and substantially smaller than 0.28 ± 0.18 μg m−3 over the Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea on 9–22 December 2019. A significant correlation between TMAgas and particulate TMAH+ was obtained over the East China Sea, but no correlation existed over the Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea. The proportional or disproportional variations in concentrations of TMAgas with particulate TMAH+ over the sea zones were likely attributed to the difference in enrichment of TMAH+ in the sea surface microlayer. In addition, spatiotemporal heterogeneities in concentrations of atmospheric ammonia (NH3gas), atmospheric dimethylamine (DMAgas), and DMA in PM2.5, detected as DMAH+, were also investigated. Case analyses were performed to illustrate the formation and chemical conversion of particulate aminium ions in marine aerosols. Finally, we hypothesized a release of basic gases and particulate counterparts from the ocean to the atmosphere, together with secondary formation of DMAH+ and chemical conversion of TMAH+, in the marine atmosphere.

Yating Gao et al.

Status: final response (author comments only)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on acp-2021-301', Anonymous Referee #1, 16 Jun 2021
  • RC2: 'Comment on acp-2021-301', Anonymous Referee #3, 28 Sep 2021

Yating Gao et al.


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Short summary
This study focuses on spatiotemporal heterogeneity of observed gaseous amines, NH3 and their particulate counterparts in PM2.5 over different sea zones. The disproportional release of alkaline gases and corresponding particulate counterparts from sea-water in the sea zones in term of different extent enrichment of TMAH+ and DMAH+ in the sea surface microlayer (SML). A novel hypothesis is delivered.