01 Apr 2021

01 Apr 2021

Review status: this preprint is currently under review for the journal ACP.

Characterization of NR-PM1 and source apportionment of organic aerosol in Krakow, Poland

Anna K. Tobler1,2, Alicja Skiba3, Francesco Canonaco2, Griša Močnik4,5, Pragati Rai1, Gang Chen1, Jakub Bartyzel3, Miroslaw Zimnoch3, Katarzyna Styszko6, Jaroslaw Nęcki3, Markus Furger1, Kazimierz Różański3, Urs Baltensperger1, Jay G. Slowik1, and André S. H. Prévôt1 Anna K. Tobler et al.
  • 1Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen PSI, Switzerland
  • 2Datalystica Ltd., Park innovAARE, 5234 Villigen, Switzerland
  • 3AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, Department of Applied Nuclear Physics, Krakow, Poland
  • 4Condensed Matter Physics Department, J. Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia
  • 5Center for Atmospheric Research, University of Nova Gorica, Ajdovščina, Slovenia
  • 6AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Energy and Fuels, Department of Coal Chemistry and Environmental Sciences, Krakow, Poland

Abstract. Krakow is routinely affected by very high air pollution levels, especially during the winter months. Although a lot of effort has been done on characterization of ambient aerosols, there is a lack of online and long-term measurements of non-refractory aerosols. Our measurements at AGH University provide online long-term chemical composition of ambient submicron particulate matter (PM1) between January 2018 and April 2019. Here we report the chemical characterization of non-refractory submicron aerosols and source apportionment of the organic fraction by positive matrix factorization (PMF). In contrast to other long-term source apportionment studies, we let a small PMF window roll over the dataset instead of performing PMF over the full dataset or on separate seasons. In this way, the seasonal variation of the source profiles can be captured. The uncertainties of the PMF solutions are addressed by the bootstrap resampling strategy and the random a-value approach for constrained factors.

We observe clear seasonal patterns in concentration and composition of PM1, with high concentrations during the winter months and lower concentrations during the summer months. Organics are the dominant species throughout the campaign. Five organic aerosol (OA) factors are resolved, of which three are of primary nature (hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA), biomass burning OA (BBOA) and coal combustion OA (CCOA)) and two are of secondary nature (more oxidized oxygenated OA (MO-OOA) and less oxidized oxygenated OA (LO-OOA)). While HOA contributes on average 8.6 % ± 2.3 % throughout the campaign, the solid fuel combustion related BBOA and CCOA show a clear seasonal trend with average contributions of 10.4 % ± 2.7 % and 14.1 %, ± 2.1 % respectively. The highest contributions are observed during wintertime as a result of residential heating. Throughout the campaign, the OOA can be separated into MO-OOA and LO-OOA with average contribution of 38.4 % ± 8.4 % and 28.5 % ± 11.2 %, respectively.

Anna K. Tobler et al.

Status: final response (author comments only)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on acp-2021-197', Anonymous Referee #1, 21 Apr 2021
  • RC2: 'Comment on acp-2021-197', Anonymous Referee #2, 09 May 2021

Anna K. Tobler et al.

Anna K. Tobler et al.


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Short summary
Krakow is among the cities with the highest particulate matter levels within Europe. We conducted long-term and highly time resolved measurements of the chemical composition of submicron particlulate matter (PM1). Combined with advanced source apportionment techniques, which allow for time-dependent factor profiles, our data elucidate key emission sources that influence the PM1 concentrations in Krakow.