Preprints
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2021-1098
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2021-1098
 
14 Mar 2022
14 Mar 2022
Status: a revised version of this preprint was accepted for the journal ACP and is expected to appear here in due course.

Evidence of haze-driven secondary production of supermicrometer aerosol nitrate and sulfate in size distribution data in South Korea

Joseph Schlosser1, Connor Stahl1, Armin Sorooshian1,2, Yen Thi-Hoang Le3, Ki-Joon Jeon3,4,5, Peng Xian6, Carolyn E. Jordan7,8, Katherine R. Travis7, James H. Crawford7, Sung Yong Gong9, Hye-Jung Shin10, In-Ho Song10, and Jong-sang Youn5,11 Joseph Schlosser et al.
  • 1Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA
  • 2Department of Hydrology and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA
  • 3Program in Environmental and Polymer Engineering, Inha University, 100 Inha-ro, Incheon 22212, Republic of Korea
  • 4Department of Environmental Engineering, Inha University, 100 Inha-ro, Incheon 22212, Republic of Korea
  • 5Particle Pollution Research and Management Center, Incheon 21999, Republic of Korea
  • 6Marine Meteorology Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Monterey, CA, USA
  • 7NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA, USA
  • 8National Institute of Aerospace, Hampton, VA, USA
  • 9Climate, Air Quality and Safety Research Group/Division for Atmospheric Environment, Korea Environment Institute, 370 Sicheong-daero, Sejong 30147, Republic of Korea
  • 10Air Quality Research Division, Climate and Air Quality Research Department, National Institute of Environmental Research, 42 Hwangyoun-ro, Incheon 22689, Republic of Korea
  • 11Department of Energy and Environmental Engineering, the Catholic University of Korea, 43 Jibong-ro, Bucheon 14662, Republic of Korea

Abstract. This study reports measurements of size-resolved aerosol composition at a site in Incheon along with other aerosol characteristics for contrast between Incheon (coastal) and Seoul (inland), South Korea, during a transboundary pollution event during the early part of an intensive sampling period between 4 and 11 March 2019. Anthropogenic emissions were dominant in the boundary layer over the study region between 4 and 6 March, with much smaller contributions from dust, smoke, and sea salt. Seoul exhibits higher PM2.5 levels than Incheon due likely to local emissions and a meteorological set up (shallow boundary layer, enhanced humidity, and low temperature) promoting local heterogeneous formation of secondary inorganic and organic species, including atypically high nitrate (NO3-) relative to sulfate (SO42-). The following findings point to secondary aerosol formation and growth sensitivity to water vapor during this pollution event: (i) significant concentrations of individual inorganic and organic acids in the supermicrometer range relative to their full size range (~40 %) at higher humidity; (ii) high correlation between oxalate and SO42-; (iii) increased sulfur and nitrogen oxidation ratios as a function of humidity; and (iv) matching composition apportionment (for soluble ions) between the PM1 and PM2.5-1 size fractions. The last finding confirms that PM1 aerosol composition measurements fully capture PM2.5 composition apportionment (for soluble ions) during haze events and, therefore, may be reliably applied in modeling studies of such events over the full PM2.5 size range. The study period was marked by relatively low temperatures that made NO3- the most abundant species detected, pointing to the sensitivity of PM2.5 levels and composition as a function of season during such transboundary events. For instance, other such events in previous studies exhibited more comparable levels between SO42- and NO3- coincident with higher temperatures than the current study. This dataset can contribute to future evaluation of model PM2.5 composition to better support regulatory efforts to control PM2.5 precursors.

Joseph Schlosser et al.

Status: closed

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on acp-2021-1098', Anonymous Referee #2, 04 Apr 2022
  • RC2: 'Comment on acp-2021-1098', Anonymous Referee #1, 11 Apr 2022
  • AC1: 'Response to the two reviewers' comments', Joseph Schlosser, 26 Apr 2022

Status: closed

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on acp-2021-1098', Anonymous Referee #2, 04 Apr 2022
  • RC2: 'Comment on acp-2021-1098', Anonymous Referee #1, 11 Apr 2022
  • AC1: 'Response to the two reviewers' comments', Joseph Schlosser, 26 Apr 2022

Joseph Schlosser et al.

Data sets

USGODAE Data Catalog - Selected Data Sets NRL Monterey https://nrlgodae1.nrlmry.navy.mil/cgi-bin/datalist.pl?dset=nrl_naaps_reanalysis&summary=Go

Dataset for "Evidence of haze-driven secondary production of supermicrometer aerosol nitrate and sulfate in size distribution data in South Korea" Joseph Schlosser https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.16910686.v1

Joseph Schlosser et al.

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Short summary
During a major haze pollution episode in March 2019, anthropogenic emissions were dominant in the boundary layer over Incheon and Seoul, South Korea. Using super- and sub-micrometer size- and chemistry-resolved aerosol particle measurements taken during this haze pollution period, this work shows that local emissions and a shallow boundary layer, enhanced humidity, and low temperature promoted local heterogeneous formation of secondary inorganic and organic aerosol species.
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