04 Feb 2022
04 Feb 2022
Status: a revised version of this preprint is currently under review for the journal ACP.

Measurement report: Intra-, inter-annual variability and source apportionment of VOCs during 2018–2020 in Zhengzhou, Central China

Shijie Yu1,2, Shenbo Wang2,3, Ruixin Xu2,3, Dong Zhang1,2, Meng Zhang5, Fangcheng Su2,3, Ruiqin Zhang2,3, and Lingling Wang4 Shijie Yu et al.
  • 1College of Chemistry, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001, China
  • 2Institute of Environmental Sciences, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001, China
  • 3School of Ecology and Environment, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001, China
  • 4Environmental Monitoring Center of Henan Province, Zhengzhou 450000
  • 5Pingdingshan Ecological Environment Monitoring Center of Henan Province, Pingdingshan 467000, China

Abstract. Ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured continuously to investigate their characteristics, sources, atmospheric oxidation capacity (AOC) and chemical reactivity from January 2018 to December 2020 at an urban site in Zhengzhou, China. In this study, the total concentration of observed VOCs was 38.2 ± 15.6 ppbv during the sampling period, with the characteristics that alkanes were the major VOC species, accounting for 60 % of total VOCs. During the sampling period, the inter-annual variation of VOCs gradually reduced from 45.0 ± 25.2 ppbv in 2018 to 36.7 ± 22.0 ppbv in 2019, and to 30.5 ± 15.4 ppbv in 2020. Ethane, ethene, and propane were the top three abundant species during the three-year observation period. The results showed that total AOC, dominated by OH radical reactions, was 7.4 × 107 molecules cm−3 s−1. The total OH reactivity was 45.3 s−1, and mainly contributed by NOx. The AOC and •OH reactivity exhibited well-defined seasonal and inter-annual patterns. Therefore, the control strategy should focus on key species among inter-annual and seasonal variations. Meanwhile, diagnostic ratios of VOC species indicated VOCs in Zhengzhou were greatly affected by vehicle emissions and liquefied petroleum gas/natural gas (LPG/NG). Positive matrix factorization analysis showed six sources were identified, consisting of industrial sources, solvent use, vehicle exhaust, LPG/NG, coal+biomass burning and biogenic sources. Vehicle emissions, solvent use and LPG/NG made the largest contributions to VOC emission in all three years. The proportion of the contribution of vehicle emissions and LPG/NG has increased with each passing year. However, the proportion of industrial and solvent sources presented a decreasing trend, which is speculated that the policy control effect is remarkable. The effect of VOCs on ozone formation suggests that vehicle emission and solvent utilization were still key sources. Therefore, it is necessary to formulate effective strategies for reducing ground-level O3, and those sources mentioned above should be strictly controlled by the regulatory authorities.

Shijie Yu et al.

Status: final response (author comments only)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on acp-2021-1016', Anonymous Referee #1, 20 Feb 2022
    • AC1: 'Reply on RC1', Yu Shijie, 12 May 2022
  • RC2: 'Comment on acp-2021-1016', Anonymous Referee #2, 23 Mar 2022
    • AC2: 'Reply on RC2', Yu Shijie, 12 May 2022

Shijie Yu et al.


Total article views: 476 (including HTML, PDF, and XML)
HTML PDF XML Total Supplement BibTeX EndNote
333 128 15 476 41 4 7
  • HTML: 333
  • PDF: 128
  • XML: 15
  • Total: 476
  • Supplement: 41
  • BibTeX: 4
  • EndNote: 7
Views and downloads (calculated since 04 Feb 2022)
Cumulative views and downloads (calculated since 04 Feb 2022)

Viewed (geographical distribution)

Total article views: 526 (including HTML, PDF, and XML) Thereof 526 with geography defined and 0 with unknown origin.
Country # Views %
  • 1
Latest update: 26 May 2022
Short summary
In this study, the hourly data of 57 VOC species were collected during 2018 to 2020 at an urban site in Zhengzhou, China. The research of concentrations, source apportionment and atmospheric environmental implications clearly elucidated the differences in major reactants observed in different seasons and years. Therefore, the control strategy should focus on key species and source among inter-annual and seasonal variations. The results can provide references to develope control strategies.