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Preprints
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2020-892
© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2020-892
© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

  19 Oct 2020

19 Oct 2020

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This preprint is currently under review for the journal ACP.

Emissions of non-methane volatile organic compounds from combustion of domestic fuels in Delhi, India

Gareth J. Stewart1, W. Joe F. Acton2,a, Beth S. Nelson1, Adam R. Vaughan1, James R. Hopkins1,3, Rahul Arya4,5, Arnab Mondal4,5, Ritu Jangirh4,5, Sakshi Ahlawat4,5, Lokesh Yadav4,5, Sudhir K. Sharma4,5, Rachel E. Dunmore1, Siti S. M. Yunus6, C. Nicholas Hewitt2, Eiko Nemitz7, Neil Mullinger7, Ranu Gadi8, Lokesh K. Sahu9, Nidhi Tripathi9, Andrew R. Rickard1,3, James D. Lee1,3, Tuhin K. Mandal4,5, and Jacqueline F. Hamilton1 Gareth J. Stewart et al.
  • 1Wolfson Atmospheric Chemistry Laboratories, Department of Chemistry, University of York, York, YO10 5DD, UK
  • 2Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ, UK
  • 3National Centre for Atmospheric Science, University of York, York, YO10 5DD, UK
  • 4CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi, Delhi 110012, India
  • 5Academy of Scientific & Innovative Research, Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh-201 002, India
  • 6School of Water, Environment and Energy, Cranfield University, Cranfield, MK43 0AL, UK
  • 7UK Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Penicuik, EH26 0QB, UK
  • 8Indira Gandhi Delhi Technical University for Women, Kashmiri Gate, New Delhi, Delhi 110006, India
  • 9Physical Research Laboratory (PRL), Ahmedabad 380009, India
  • anow at: School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, B15 2TT, Birmingham, UK

Abstract. 29 different fuel types used in residential dwellings in northern India were collected from across New Delhi (76 samples in total). Emission factors of a wide range of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) (192 compounds in total) were measured during controlled burning experiments using dual-channel gas chromatography with flame ionisation detection (DC-GD-FID), two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC-FID), proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS) and solid-phase extraction two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SPE-GC×GC-ToF-MS). 94 % quantification was achieved on average across all fuel types. The largest contributors to emissions from most fuel types were small non-aromatic oxygenated species, phenolics and furanics. The emission factors (in g kg−1) for total gas-phase NMVOCs were: fuel wood (18.7, 4.3–96.7), cow dung cake (62.0, 35.3–83.0), crop residue (37.9, 8.9–73.8), charcoal (5.4, 2.4–7.9), sawdust (72.4, 28.6–115.5), municipal solid waste (87.3, 56.6–119.1) and liquified petroleum gas (5.7, 1.9–9.8).

The emission factors measured in this study allow for better characterisation, evaluation and understanding of the air quality impacts of residential solid fuel combustion in India.

Gareth J. Stewart et al.

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Short summary
Biomass burning is a major source of trace gases to the troposphere; however, the composition and quantity of emissions vary greatly between different fuel types. This work provided near-total quantitation of non-methane volatile organic compounds from combustion of biofuels from India. Emission from cow dung cake combustion were significantly larger than conventional fuel wood combustion, potentially indicating that this source has a disproportionately large impact on regional air quality.
Biomass burning is a major source of trace gases to the troposphere; however, the composition and...
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