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https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2020-848
© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2020-848
© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

  09 Oct 2020

09 Oct 2020

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This preprint is currently under review for the journal ACP.

Fifty-six years of Surface Solar Radiation and Sunshine Duration at the Surface in São Paulo, Brazil: 1961–2016

Marcia Akemi Yamasoe1, Nilton Manuel Évora do Rosário2, Samantha Novaes Santos Martins Almeida3, and Martin Wild4 Marcia Akemi Yamasoe et al.
  • 1Departamento de Ciências Atmosféricas, Instituto de Astronomia, Geofísica e Ciências Atmosféricas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
  • 2Departamento de Ciências Ambientais, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Diadema, São Paulo, Brazil
  • 3Seção de Serviços Meteorológicos do Instituto de Astronomia, Geofísica e Ciências Atmosféricas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
  • 4Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science, ETH Zurich, Switzerland

Abstract. Fifty-six years (1961–2016) of daily surface downward solar irradiation, sunshine duration, diurnal temperature range and the fraction of the sky covered by clouds in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, were analyzed. The main purpose was to contribute to the characterization and understanding of the dimming and brightening effects on solar global radiation in this part of South America. As observed in most of the previous studies worldwide, in this study, during the period between 1961 up to the early 1980's, more specifically up to 1983, a negative trend in surface solar irradiation was detected in São Paulo, characterizing the occurrence of a dimming effect. A similar behavior, a negative trend, was also observed for sunshine duration and the diurnal temperature range, the three variables in opposition to the trend in the sky cover fraction. However, a brightening effect, as observed in western industrialized countries in more recent years, was not observed. Instead, for surface downward irradiation, the negative trend persisted and still in consonance to the cloud cover fraction increasing trend. The trends for sunshine duration and the diurnal temperature range, by contrast, changed signal. Some possible causes for the discrepancy were discussed, such as the frequency of fog occurrence, urban heat island effects, aerosol changes and greenhouse gas concentration increase. Future studies on aerosol effect are encouraged, particularly with higher temporal resolution as well as modeling studies, to better analyze the contribution of each possible causes.

Marcia Akemi Yamasoe et al.

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Marcia Akemi Yamasoe et al.

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Short summary
Spatio-temporal disparity to assess global dimming and brightening phenomena has been a critical topic. For instance, few studies addressed Surface Solar Irradiance (SSR) long-term trend in South America. In this study, SSR, Sunshine Duration (SD) and the Diurnal Temperature Range (DTR), are analyzed for São Paulo, Brazil. We found a dimming phase, identified by SSR, SD and DTR, extending till 1983. Then, while SSR is still declining, consistent with cloud increasing, SD and DTR are increasing.
Spatio-temporal disparity to assess global dimming and brightening phenomena has been a critical...
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