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© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

  04 Aug 2020

04 Aug 2020

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This preprint is currently under review for the journal ACP.

Long-term INP measurements from four stations across the globe

Jann Schrod1, Erik S. Thomson2, Daniel Weber1,a, Jens Kossmann1, Christopher Pöhlker3, Jorge Saturno3,b, Florian Ditas3,c, Paulo Artaxo4, Valérie Clouard5,d, Jean-Marie Saurel5, Martin Ebert6, Joachim Curtius1, and Heinz G. Bingemer1 Jann Schrod et al.
  • 1Institute for Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, Goethe University Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
  • 2Department of Chemistry and Molecular Biology, Atmospheric Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden
  • 3Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Biogeochemistry and Multiphase Chemistry Departments, Mainz, Germany
  • 4Physics Institute, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
  • 5Université de Paris, Institut de physique du globe de Paris, Paris, France
  • 6Institute for Applied Geosciences, Technical University of Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Germany
  • anow at: Federal Waterways Engineering and Research Institute, Karlsruhe, Germany
  • bnow at: Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig, Germany
  • cnow at: Hessisches Landesamt für Naturschutz, Umwelt und Geologie, Wiesbaden, Germany
  • dnow at: Géosciences Environnement Toulouse, Toulouse, France

Abstract. Ice particle activation and evolution have important atmospheric implications for cloud formation, initiation of precipitation and radiative interactions. In many cases the initial formation of atmospheric ice requires the presence of a nucleating seed, an ice nucleating particle (INP), to facilitate its first emergence. Unfortunately, few long-term measurements of INPs exist and as a result, knowledge about geographic and seasonal variations of INP concentrations is sparse. Here we present data from nearly two years of INP measurements from four stations in different regions of the world: the Amazon, the Caribbean, Central Europe and the Norwegian Arctic. The sites feature diverse geographical climates and ecosystems that are associated with dissimilar transport patterns, aerosol characteristics and levels of anthropogenic impact (ranging from near pristine to mostly rural). Interestingly, observed INP concentrations do not differ greatly from site to site, but usually fall well within the same order of magnitude. Moreover, short-term variability overwhelms all long-term trends and/or seasonality in the INP concentration at all locations. An analysis of the frequency distributions of INP concentrations suggests that INPs tend to be well-mixed and reflective of large-scale air mass movements. No universal physical or chemical parameter could be identified to be a causal link driving INP climatology, highlighting the complex nature of the ice nucleation process. Amazonian INP concentrations were mostly unaffected by the biomass burning season, even though aerosol concentrations increase by a factor of 10 from the wet to dry season. Caribbean INPs were positively correlated to parameters related to transported mineral dust, which is known to increase during the northern hemispheric summer. A wind sector analysis revealed the absence of an anthropogenic impact on average INP concentrations at the Central European site. Likewise, no Arctic Haze influence was observed on INPs at the Norwegian site, where low concentrations were generally measured. We consider the collected data to be a unique resource for the community that illustrates some of the challenges and knowledge gaps of the field in general, while specifically highlighting the need for more long-term observations of INPs worldwide.

Jann Schrod et al.

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Jann Schrod et al.

Jann Schrod et al.


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Latest update: 29 Sep 2020
Publications Copernicus
Short summary
Long-term ice nucleating particle (INP) data is presented from 4 semi-pristine sites located in the Amazon, the Caribbean, Germany and the Arctic. Average INP concentrations did not differ by orders of magnitude between the diverse sites. For all sites short-term variability dominated the time series, which lacked clear trends and seasonalities. Common drivers to explain the INP levels and their variations could not be identified, illustrating the complex nature of heterogeneous ice nucleation.
Long-term ice nucleating particle (INP) data is presented from 4 semi-pristine sites located...