Journal cover Journal topic
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
Journal topic

Journal metrics

IF value: 5.414
IF 5-year value: 5.958
IF 5-year
CiteScore value: 9.7
SNIP value: 1.517
IPP value: 5.61
SJR value: 2.601
Scimago H <br class='widget-line-break'>index value: 191
Scimago H
h5-index value: 89
© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

  15 Jul 2020

15 Jul 2020

Review status
This preprint is currently under review for the journal ACP.

Direct measurements of black carbon fluxes in central Beijing using the eddy-covariance method

Rutambhara Joshi1, Dantong Liu1,a, Eiko Nemitz2, Ben Langford2, Neil Mullinger2, Freya Squires3, James Lee3,9, Yunfei Wu4, Xiaole Pan4, Pingqing Fu4, Simone Kotthaus5,b, Sue Grimmond5, Qiang Zhang6, Ruili Wu6, Oliver Wild7, Michael Flynn1, Hugh Coe1, and James Allan1,8 Rutambhara Joshi et al.
  • 1University of Manchester, School of Earth and Environmental Science, Manchester, United Kingdom
  • 2UK Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Penicuik, United Kingdom
  • 3Department of Chemistry, University of York, York, United Kingdom
  • 4Institute of Atmospheric Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
  • 5Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, Reading, United Kingdom
  • 6Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Earth System Modelling, Department of Earth System Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China
  • 7Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster, UK
  • 8National Centre for Atmospheric Science, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom
  • 9National Centre for Atmospheric Science, University of York, York, United Kingdom
  • anow at: Department of Atmospheric Sciences, School of Earth Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China 310027
  • bnow at: Institut Pierre Simon Laplace, École Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France

Abstract. Black carbon (BC) forms an important component of particulate matter globally, due to its impact on climate, the environment, and human health. Identifying and quantifying its emission sources is critical for effective policymaking and achieving the desired reduction in air pollution. In this study, we present the first direct measurements of urban BC fluxes using eddy-covariance. The measurements were made over Beijing within the UK-China Air Pollution and Human Health (APHH) winter 2016 and summer 2017 campaigns. In both seasons, the mean measured BC mass (winter: 5.49 ng m−2 s−1, summer: 6.10 ng m−2 s−1) and number fluxes (winter: 261.25 particles cm−2 s−1, summer: 334.37 particles cm−2 s−1) were similar. Traffic was determined to be the dominant source of the BC fluxes measured during both seasons. The total BC emissions within the 2013 Multi-resolution Emission Inventory for China (MEIC) are on average too high compared to measured fluxes by a factor of 58.8 (winter) and 47.2 (summer). Comparison of MEIC transport sector only are also larger (factor winter: 37.5, summer: 37.7) than the measured flux. Emission ratios of BC/NOx and BC/CO are comparable to vehicular emission control standards implemented in January 2017 for gasoline (China 5) and diesel (China V) engines, indicating reduction of BC emissions within central Beijing and extending this to a larger area would further reduce total BC concentrations.

Rutambhara Joshi et al.

Interactive discussion

Status: final response (author comments only)
Status: final response (author comments only)
AC: Author comment | RC: Referee comment | SC: Short comment | EC: Editor comment
[Login for Authors/Editors] [Subscribe to comment alert] Printer-friendly Version - Printer-friendly version Supplement - Supplement

Rutambhara Joshi et al.

Rutambhara Joshi et al.


Total article views: 256 (including HTML, PDF, and XML)
HTML PDF XML Total BibTeX EndNote
177 71 8 256 8 8
  • HTML: 177
  • PDF: 71
  • XML: 8
  • Total: 256
  • BibTeX: 8
  • EndNote: 8
Views and downloads (calculated since 15 Jul 2020)
Cumulative views and downloads (calculated since 15 Jul 2020)

Viewed (geographical distribution)

Total article views: 248 (including HTML, PDF, and XML) Thereof 248 with geography defined and 0 with unknown origin.
Country # Views %
  • 1



No saved metrics found.


No discussed metrics found.
Latest update: 21 Oct 2020
Publications Copernicus
Short summary
Black Carbon (BC) is a component of particulate matter which has significant climate and human health effects. Sources of BC include biomass burning, transport, industry and domestic cooking and heating. In this study, we measured BC emissions in Beijing, finding a dominance of traffic emissions over all other sources. The quantitative method presented here has benefits for revising widely used emissions inventories and for understanding of BC sources with impacts for air quality and climate.
Black Carbon (BC) is a component of particulate matter which has significant climate and human...