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© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

  23 Jun 2020

23 Jun 2020

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This preprint is currently under review for the journal ACP.

A Two-Component Parameterization of Marine Ice Nucleating Particles Based on Seawater Biology and Sea Spray Aerosol Measurements in the Mediterranean Sea

Jonathan V. Trueblood1, Alesia Nicosia1, Anja Engel2, Birthe Zäncker2, Matteo Rinaldi3, Evelyn Freney1, Melilotus Thyssen4, Ingrid Obernosterer5, Julie Dinasquet5,6, Franco Belosi3, Antonio Tovar-Sánchez7, Araceli Rodriguez-Romero7, Gianni Santachiara3, Cécile Guieu5, and Karine Sellegri1 Jonathan V. Trueblood et al.
  • 1Université Clermont Auvergne, CNRS, Laboratoire de Météorologie Physique (LaMP), F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand, France
  • 2GEOMAR, Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, 24105 Kiel, Germany
  • 3Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, National Research Council, 40129 Bologna, Italy
  • 4Mediterranean Institute of Oceanography, 163 avenue de Luminy, Marseille, France
  • 5CNRS, Sorbonne Université, Laboratoire d'Océanographie de Villefranche, UMR7093, Villefranche-sur-Mer
  • 6Marine Biology Research Division, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, 92037 La Jolla, US
  • 7Department of Ecology and Coastal Management, Institute of Marine Sciences of Andalusia (ICMAN-CSIC), 07190 Puerto Real, Spain

Abstract. Ice nucleating particles (INP) have a large impact on the climate-relevant properties of clouds over the oceans. Studies have shown that sea spray aerosols (SSA), produced upon bursting of bubbles at the ocean surface, can be an important source of marine INP, particularly during periods of enhanced biological productivity. Recent mesocosm experiments using natural seawater spiked with nutrients have revealed that marine INP are derived from two separate classes of organic matter in SSA. Despite this finding, existing parameterizations for marine INP abundance are based solely on single variables such as total organic carbon (TOC) or SSA surface area, which may mask specific trends in the separate classes of INPs. The goal of this paper is to improve the understanding of the connection between ocean biology and marine INP abundance by reporting results from a field study and proposing a new parameterization of marine INP that accounts for the two associated classes of organic matter. The PEACETIME cruise took place from May 10 to June 10, 2017 in the Mediterranean Sea. Throughout the cruise, INP concentrations in the surface microlayer (SML) and in SSA produced using a plunging aquarium apparatus were continuously monitored while surface seawater (SSW) and SML biological properties were measured in parallel. The organic content of artificially generated SSA was also evaluated. A dust wet deposition event that occurred during the cruise increased the INP concentrations measured in the SML by an order of magnitude, in line with increases of iron in the SML and bacterial abundances. Increases of INPs in marine SSA (INPSSA) were not observed before a delay of three days compared to increases in the SML, and are likely a result of a strong influence of bulk SSW INP for the temperatures investigated (T = −18 °C for SSA, T = −16 °C for SSW). Results confirmed that INPSSA are divided into two classes depending on their associated organic matter. Here we find that warm (T ≥ −22 °C) INPSSA concentrations are correlated with water soluble organic matter in the SSA, but also to SSW parameters (POCSSW INPSSW,−16 °C) while cold INPSSA (T < −22 °C) are correlated with SSA water-insoluble organic carbon (WIOC) and SML dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration. A relationship was also found between cold INPSSA and SSW microphytoplankton cell abundances, indicating that these species might be at the origin of water insoluble organic matter with surfactant properties and specific IN properties. Using these results, we propose a two-component parameterization for the abundance of INP in marine SSA and compare it with previous single-component models based on SSA surface area and TOC content. This new, two-component parameterization should improve attempts to incorporate marine INP emissions into numerical models. Future studies will be conducted to confirm if our parameterization can be extended to regions of higher biological productivity, such as the Southern Ocean.

Jonathan V. Trueblood et al.

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Jonathan V. Trueblood et al.

Jonathan V. Trueblood et al.


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Publications Copernicus
Short summary
Sea spray aerosols (SSA) can be an important source of Ice nucleating particles (INP) that impact cloud properties over the oceans. In the Mediterranean Sea, we found that the INP in the seawater surface microlayer increased by an order of magnitude after a rain dust event that impacted iron and bacterial abundances. The INP properties of SSA (INPSSA) increased after a three day delay. Outside this event, INPSSA could be parameterized as a function of the seawater biogeochemistry.
Sea spray aerosols (SSA) can be an important source of Ice nucleating particles (INP) that...