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Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
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Preprints
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2020-272
© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2020-272
© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

  14 Apr 2020

14 Apr 2020

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A revised version of this preprint was accepted for the journal ACP and is expected to appear here in due course.

Biomass burning combustion efficiency observed from space using measurements of CO and NO2 by TROPOMI

Ivar R. van der Velde1,2, Guido R. van der Werf1, Sander Houweling1,2, Henk J. Eskes3, J. Pepijn Veefkind3,4, Tobias Borsdorff2, and Ilse Aben1,2 Ivar R. van der Velde et al.
  • 1Faculty of Science, VU University, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
  • 2SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Utrecht, The Netherlands
  • 3KNMI Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute, De Bilt, The Netherlands
  • 4Department of Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands

Abstract. The global fire emission inventories depend on ground and airborne measurements of species-specific emission factors (EFs), which translate dry matter losses due to fires to actual trace gas and aerosol emissions. The EFs of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and carbon monoxide (CO) can function as a proxy for combustion efficiency to distinguish flaming from smoldering combustion. The uncertainties on these EFs remain large as they are limited by the spatial and temporal representativeness of the measurements. The global coverage of satellite observations has the advantage to fill this gap, making these measurements highly complementary to ground-based or airborne data. We present a new analysis of biomass burning pollutants using space-borne data to investigate the spatiotemporal efficiency of fire combustion. Column measurements of nitrogen dioxide and carbon monoxide (XNO2 and XCO) from the TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) are used to quantify the relative atmospheric enhancements of these species over different fire-prone regions around the world. We find spatial and temporal patterns in the ΔXNO2 / ΔXCO ratio that point to distinct differences in biomass burning behavior. Such differences are induced by the burning phase of the fire (e.g. high temperature flaming vs. low temperature smoldering combustion) and burning practice (e.g. the combustion of logs, coarse woody debris and soil organic matter vs. the combustion of fine fuels such as savanna grasses). The sampling techniques and the signal-to-noise of the retrieved ΔXNO2 / ΔXCO signals were quantified with WRF-CHEM experiments and showed similar distinct differences in combustion types. The TROPOMI measurements show that the fraction of surface smoldering combustion is much larger for the boreal forest fires in the upper northern hemisphere and peatland fires in Indonesia. These types of fires cause a much larger increase (3 to 6 times) in ΔXCO relative to ΔXNO2 than elsewhere in the world. The high spatial and temporal resolution of TROPOMI also enables the detection of spatial gradients in combustion efficiency at smaller regional scales. For instance, in the Amazon, we found higher combustion efficiency (up to 3-fold) for savanna fires than for the nearby tropical deforestation fires. Out of two investigated fire emission products, the TROPOMI measurements support the broad spatial pattern of combustion efficiency rooted in GFED4s. Meanwhile, TROPOMI data also add new insights on regional variability in combustion characteristics that are not well represented in the different emission inventories, which can help the fire modeling community to improve their representation of the spatiotemporal variability in EFs.

Ivar R. van der Velde et al.

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Ivar R. van der Velde et al.

Ivar R. van der Velde et al.

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Short summary
This paper compares the relative atmospheric enhancements of CO and NO2 measured by the new space-based instrument TROPOMI over different fire-prone ecosystems around the world. We find distinct spatial and temporal patterns in ΔNO2 / ΔCO ratio that correspond to regional differences in combustion efficiency. This joint analysis provides a better understanding of regional scale combustion characteristics and can help the fire modeling community to improve existing global emission inventories.
This paper compares the relative atmospheric enhancements of CO and NO2 measured by the new...
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