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Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
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© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

  24 Mar 2020

24 Mar 2020

Review status
A revised version of this preprint was accepted for the journal ACP.

Arctic marine ice nucleating aerosol: a laboratory study of microlayer samples and algal cultures

Luisa Ickes1,2,a, Grace C. E. Porter3, Robert Wagner2, Michael P. Adams3, Sascha Bierbauer2, Allan K. Bertram4, Merete Bilde5, Sigurd Christiansen5, Annica M. L. Ekman1, Elena Gorokhova6, Kristina Höhler2, Alexei A. Kiselev2, Caroline Leck1, Ottmar Möhler2, Benjamin J. Murray3, Thea Schiebel2, Romy Ullrich2, and Matthew Salter6 Luisa Ickes et al.
  • 1Department of Meteorology & Bolin Centre for Climate Studies, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
  • 2Institute of Meteorology and Climate Research, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe, Germany
  • 3School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom
  • 4Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
  • 5Department of Chemistry, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark
  • 6Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry & Bolin Centre for Climate Studies, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
  • anow at: Department of Space, Earth and Environment, Chalmers, Gothenburg, Sweden

Abstract. In recent years, sea spray and the biological material it contains has received increased attention as a source of ice nucleating particles (INPs). Such INPs may play a role in remote marine regions, where other sources of INPs are scarce or absent. Marine aerosol is of diverse nature, so identifying sources of INPs is challenging. One fraction of marine bioaerosol, phytoplankton and their exudates, has been a particular focus of marine INP research. In our study we attempt to address three main questions. Firstly, we compare the ice nucleating ability of two common phytoplankton species with Arctic seawater microlayer samples using the same instrumentation to see if these phytoplankton species produce ice nucleating material with sufficient activity to account for the ice nucleation observed in Arctic microlayer samples. We present first measurements of the ice nucleating ability of two predominant phytoplankton species, Melosira arctica, a common Arctic diatom species and Skeletonema marinoi, a ubiquitous diatom species across oceans worldwide. To determine the potential effect of nutrient conditions and characteristics of the algal culture, such as the amount of organic carbon associated with algal cells, on the ice nucleation activity, the Skeletonema marinoi was grown under different nutrient regimes. From comparison of the ice nucleation data of the algal cultures to those obtained from a range of sea surface microlayer (SML) samples obtained during three different field expeditions to the Arctic (ACCACIA, NETCARE, ASCOS) we found that although these diatoms do produce ice nucleating material, they were not as ice active as the investigated microlayer samples. Secondly, to improve our understanding of local Arctic marine sources as atmospheric INP we applied several aerosolisation techniques to analyse the ice nucleating ability of aerosolised microlayer and algae samples. The aerosols were generated either by direct nebulisation of the undiluted bulk solutions, or by the addition of the samples to a sea spray simulation chamber filled with artificial seawater. The latter method generates aerosol particles using a plunging jet to mimic the process of oceanic wave-breaking. We observed that the aerosols produced using this approach can be ice active indicating that the ice nucleating material in seawater can indeed transfer to the aerosol phase. Thirdly, we attempted to measure ice nucleation activity across the entire temperature range relevant for mixed-phase clouds using a suite of ice nucleation measurement techniques- an expansion cloud chamber, a continuous flow diffusion chamber, and a cold stage. In order to compare the measurements made using the different instruments, we have normalised the data in relation to the mass of salt present in the nascent sea spray aerosol. At temperatures above 248 K some of the SML samples were very effective at nucleating ice, but there was substantial variability between the different samples. In contrast, there was much less variability between samples below 248 K.

Luisa Ickes et al.

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Luisa Ickes et al.

Luisa Ickes et al.


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Latest update: 07 Aug 2020
Publications Copernicus
Short summary
The Arctic is a region where aerosols are scarce. Sea spray might be a potential source of aerosols acting as ice nucleating particles. We investigate two common phytoplankton species (Melosira arctica and Skeletonema marinoi) and present their ice nucleation activity in comparison with Arctic seawater microlayer samples from different field campaigns. We also aim to understand the aerosolisation process of marine biological samples and the potential effect on the ice nucleation activity.
The Arctic is a region where aerosols are scarce. Sea spray might be a potential source of...