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During StratoClim 2017 within the Asian monsoon region, in situ aerosol measurements were conducted aboard the M55 Geophysica. The vertical particle mixing ratio profiles show the ATAL as a distinct layer (15 to 18.5 km). The aerosol scattering ratio (SR) was calculated based on the aerosol size distributions and compared with the SRs detected by a backscatter probe and a lidar aboard M55, and by the CALIOP lidar. All four methods show enhanced SRs in the ATAL's altitude range (max. at 17.5 km).
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Preprints
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2020-1241
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2020-1241

  06 Jan 2021

06 Jan 2021

Review status: this preprint is currently under review for the journal ACP.

The ATAL within the 2017 Asian Monsoon Anticyclone: Microphysical aerosol properties derived from aircraft-borne in situ measurements

Christoph Mahnke1,a, Ralf Weigel2, Francesco Cairo3, Jean-Paul Vernier4,5, Armin Afchine6, Martina Krämer6, Valentin Mitev7, Renaud Matthey8, Silvia Viciani9, Francesco D'Amato9, Felix Ploeger6, Terry Deshler10, and Stephan Borrmann1,2 Christoph Mahnke et al.
  • 1Particle Chemistry Department, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz, Germany
  • 2Institute for Atmospheric Physics, Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz, Germany
  • 3Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, ISAC-CNR, Rome, Italy
  • 4National Institute of Aerospace, Hampton, Virginia, USA
  • 5NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia, USA
  • 6Institute of Energy and Climate Research - IEK7, Forschungszentrum Jülich, Jülich, Germany
  • 7Centre Suisse d’Electronique et de Microtechnique, CSEM SA, Neuchâtel, Switzerland
  • 8Institut de Physique, Université de Neuchâtel, Neuchâtel, Switzerland
  • 9National Institute of Optics, CNR-INO, Sesto Fiorentino, Italy
  • 10Department of Atmospheric Science, University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming, USA
  • anow at: Institute of Energy and Climate Research - IEK8, Forschungszentrum Jülich, Jülich, Germany

Abstract. The Asian summer monsoon is an effective pathway for aerosol particles and precursor substances from the planetary boundary layer over Central, South, and East Asia into the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. An enhancement of aerosol particles within the Asian monsoon anticyclone (AMA) has been observed by satellites, called the Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer (ATAL). In this paper we discuss airborne in situ and remote sensing observations of aerosol microphysical properties conducted during the 2017 StratoClim field campaign within the region of the Asian monsoon anticyclone. The aerosol particle measurements aboard the high-altitude research aircraft M55 Geophysica (reached a maximum altitude of about 20.5 km) were conducted by a modified Ultra High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer Airborne (UHSAS-A; particle diameter detection range from 65 nm to 1 µm), the COndensation PArticle counting System (COPAS, for detecting total aerosol densities of submicrometer sized particles), and the Cloud and Aerosol Spectrometer with Detection of POLarization (NIXE-CAS-DPOL). In the COPAS and UHSAS-A vertical particle mixing ratio profiles, the ATAL is evident as a distinct layer between 15 km (≈ 370 K) and 18.5 km altitude (≈ 420 K potential temperature). Within the ATAL, the maximum detected particle mixing ratios (from the median profiles) were 700 mg−1 for diameters between 65 nm to 1 µm (UHSAS-A) and higher than 2500 mg−1 for diameters larger than 10 nm (COPAS). These values are up to two times higher than previously found at similar altitudes in other tropical locations. The difference between the particle mixing ratio profiles measured by the UHSAS-A and the COPAS indicate that the region below the ATAL at potential temperatures from 350 to 370 K is influenced by the fresh nucleation of aerosol particles (diameter < 65 nm). We provide detailed analyses of the vertical distribution of the aerosol particle size distributions and the particle mixing ratios and compare these with previous tropical and extratropical measurements. The aerosol scattering ratio was calculated based on the in situ measured aerosol particle size distributions. The resulting dataset was compared with the vertical profiles of the aerosol scattering ratios detected by the Multiwavelength Aerosol Scatterometer (MAS) and an airborne Miniature Aerosol Lidar (MAL) aboard the M55 Geophysica and by the satellite-borne Cloud‐Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP). The data of all four methods largely agree with each other, showing enhanced values of aerosol scattering ratio in the altitude range of the Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer with a maximum at 17.5 km altitude. By means of the AMA-centered equivalent latitude calculated from meteorological reanalysis data it is shown that such enhanced values of the aerosol scattering ratio larger 1.08 could only be observed within the confinement of the Asian monsoon anticyclone.

Christoph Mahnke et al.

Status: open (until 03 Mar 2021)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse

Christoph Mahnke et al.

Christoph Mahnke et al.

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Short summary
During StratoClim 2017 within the Asian monsoon region, in situ aerosol measurements were conducted aboard the M55 Geophysica. The vertical particle mixing ratio profiles show the ATAL as a distinct layer (15 to 18.5 km). The aerosol scattering ratio (SR) was calculated based on the aerosol size distributions and compared with the SRs detected by a backscatter probe and a lidar aboard M55, and by the CALIOP lidar. All four methods show enhanced SRs in the ATAL's altitude range (max. at 17.5 km).
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