Preprints
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2020-1202
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2020-1202

  11 Jan 2021

11 Jan 2021

Review status: this preprint is currently under review for the journal ACP.

Wintertime sub-arctic new particle formation from Kola Peninsula sulphur emissions

Mikko Sipilä1, Nina Sarnela1, Kimmo Neitola1, Totti Laitinen1, Deniz Kemppainen1, Lisa Beck1, Ella-Maria Duplissy1, Salla Kuittinen1,2, Tuuli Lehmusjärvi1, Janne Lampilahti1, Veli-Matti Kerminen1, Katrianne Lehtipalo1,2, Pasi P. Aalto1, Petri Keronen1, Erkki Siivola1, Pekka A. Rantala1, Douglas R. Worsnop1,3, Markku Kulmala1, Tuija Jokinen1, and Tuukka Petäjä1 Mikko Sipilä et al.
  • 1Institute for Atmospheric and Earth System Research, PO. Box 64, 00014, University of Helsinki, Finland
  • 2Finnish Meteorological Institute, 00560, Helsinki, Finland
  • 3Aerodyne Research Inc. 01821 Billerica, MA, USA

Abstract. Metallurgical industry in Kola peninsula, North-West Russia, form a second largest source of air pollution in the Arctic and sub-Arctic domain. Sulphur dioxide emissions from the ore smelters are transported to wide areas including Finnish Lapland. We performed investigations on concentrations of SO2 and aerosol precursor vapours, aerosol and ion cluster size distributions together with chemical composition measurements of freshly formed clusters at SMEAR I station in Finnish Lapland relatively close (~300 km) to Kola peninsula industrial sites during winter 2019–2020. We show that highly concentrated SO2 from smelter emissions is converted to sulphuric acid (H2SO4) with sufficient concentrations to drive new particle formation hundreds of kilometres downwind of the emission sources even with very low solar radiation intensities. Observed new particle formation is primarily initiated by H2SO4 – ammonia (negative-) ion induced nucleation. Particle growth to cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) sizes was concluded to result from sulphuric acid condensation. However, airmass advection had a large role in modifying aerosol size distributions and other growth mechanisms cannot be fully excluded. Our results demonstrate the dominance of SO2 emissions in controlling winter-time aerosol and CCN concentrations in the subarctic region with heavily polluting industry.

Mikko Sipilä et al.

Status: final response (author comments only)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on acp-2020-1202', Anonymous Referee #2, 22 Feb 2021
  • RC2: 'Comment on acp-2020-1202', Anonymous Referee #1, 25 Mar 2021

Mikko Sipilä et al.

Mikko Sipilä et al.

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Short summary
Metallurgical industry in Kola peninsula is a large source of air pollution in the (sub-)Arctic domain. Sulphur dioxide emissions from the ore smelters are transported to wide areas. We investigated sulphur dioxide and its transformation to sulphuric acid aerosol particles during winter months in Finnish Lapland, close to Kola industrial areas. We observed intense formation of new aerosol particles despite the low solar radiation intensity, often required for new particle formation elsewhere.
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