Journal cover Journal topic
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
Journal topic

Journal metrics

IF value: 5.414
IF5.414
IF 5-year value: 5.958
IF 5-year
5.958
CiteScore value: 9.7
CiteScore
9.7
SNIP value: 1.517
SNIP1.517
IPP value: 5.61
IPP5.61
SJR value: 2.601
SJR2.601
Scimago H <br class='widget-line-break'>index value: 191
Scimago H
index
191
h5-index value: 89
h5-index89
Download
Short summary
Volcanic forcing is counteracted by stratospheric water vapour (SWV) entering the stratosphere in consequence of aerosol induced cold point warming. We find that depending on emission strength, aerosol profile height, and season of the eruption up to four percent of the tropical aerosol forcing can be counterbalanced. An approximately linear relationship between cold point warming/SWV forcing and AOD in the yearly average is found allowing to estimate the SWV forcing for comparable eruptions.
Altmetrics
Preprints
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2020-1191
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2020-1191

  30 Nov 2020

30 Nov 2020

Review status: this preprint is currently under review for the journal ACP.

The Impact of Volcanic Eruptions of Different Magnitude on Stratospheric Water Vapour in the Tropics

Clarissa Alicia Kroll1, Sally Dacie1, Alon Azoulay1,a, Hauke Schmidt1, and Claudia Timmreck1 Clarissa Alicia Kroll et al.
  • 1Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg, Germany
  • anow at: Remote Sensing Technology Institute (IMF), German Aerospace Center (DLR), Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany

Abstract. Volcanic eruptions increase the stratospheric water vapour (SWV) entry via long wave heating through the aerosol layer in the cold point region, and this additional SWV alters the atmospheric energy budget. We analyze tropical volcanic eruptions of different eruption strengths with sulfur (S) injections ranging from 2.5 Tg S up to 40 Tg S using EVAens, the 100-member ensemble of the Max Planck Institute – Earth System Model in its low resolution configuration (MPI-ESM-LR) with artificial volcanic forcing generated by the Easy Volcanic Aerosol (EVA) tool. Significant increases in SWV are found for the mean over all ensemble members from 2.5 Tg S onward ranging between [5,160] %, while for single ensemble members the standard deviation between the control run members (0 Tg S) is larger than SWV increase of single ensemble members for the eruption strengths up to 20 Tg S. A historical simulation using observation based forcing files of the Mt. Pinatubo eruption, which was estimated to have emitted (7.5 ± 2.5) Tg S, returns SWV increases slightly higher than the 10 Tg S EVAens simulations due to differences in the aerosol profile shape. An additional amplification of the tape recorder signal is also apparent, which is not present in the 10 Tg S run. These differences underline that it is not only the eruption volume, but also the aerosol layer shape and location with respect to the cold point that have to be considered for post-eruption SWV increases. The additional tropical clear sky SWV forcing for the different eruption strengths amounts to [0.02, 0.65] W/m2, ranging between [2.5, 4] percent of the aerosol radiative forcing in the 10 Tg S scenario. The monthly cold point temperature increases leading to the SWV increase are not linear with respect to AOD nor is the corresponding SWV forcing, among others, due to hysteresis effects, seasonal dependencies, aerosol profile heights, and feedbacks. However, knowledge of the cold point temperature increase allows for an estimation of SWV increases with a 12 % increase per Kelvin increase in mean cold point temperature, and yearly averages show an approximately linear behaviour in the cold point warming and SWV forcing with respect to the AOD.

Clarissa Alicia Kroll et al.

 
Status: open (until 25 Jan 2021)
Status: open (until 25 Jan 2021)
AC: Author comment | RC: Referee comment | SC: Short comment | EC: Editor comment
[Subscribe to comment alert] Printer-friendly Version - Printer-friendly version Supplement - Supplement

Clarissa Alicia Kroll et al.

Clarissa Alicia Kroll et al.

Viewed

Total article views: 232 (including HTML, PDF, and XML)
HTML PDF XML Total BibTeX EndNote
163 65 4 232 4 3
  • HTML: 163
  • PDF: 65
  • XML: 4
  • Total: 232
  • BibTeX: 4
  • EndNote: 3
Views and downloads (calculated since 30 Nov 2020)
Cumulative views and downloads (calculated since 30 Nov 2020)

Viewed (geographical distribution)

Total article views: 254 (including HTML, PDF, and XML) Thereof 250 with geography defined and 4 with unknown origin.
Country # Views %
  • 1
1
 
 
 
 
Latest update: 20 Jan 2021
Publications Copernicus
Download
Short summary
Volcanic forcing is counteracted by stratospheric water vapour (SWV) entering the stratosphere in consequence of aerosol induced cold point warming. We find that depending on emission strength, aerosol profile height, and season of the eruption up to four percent of the tropical aerosol forcing can be counterbalanced. An approximately linear relationship between cold point warming/SWV forcing and AOD in the yearly average is found allowing to estimate the SWV forcing for comparable eruptions.
Citation
Altmetrics