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Preprints
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2020-1028
© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2020-1028
© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

  04 Nov 2020

04 Nov 2020

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This preprint is currently under review for the journal ACP.

Measurement report: Fireworks impacts on air quality in Metro Manila, Philippines during the 2019 New Year revelry

Genevieve Rose Lorenzo1,2, Paola Angela Bañaga2,3, Maria Obiminda Cambaliza2,3, Melliza Templonuevo Cruz3,4, Mojtaba Azadi Agdham6, Avelino Arellano1, Grace Betito3, Rachel Braun6, Andrea F. Corral6, Hossein Dadashazar6, Eva-Lou Edwards6, Edwin Eloranta5, Robert Holz5, Gabrielle Leung2, Lin Ma6, Alexander B. MacDonald6, James Bernard Simpas2,3, Connor Stahl6, Shane Marie Visaga2,3, and Armin Sorooshian1,6 Genevieve Rose Lorenzo et al.
  • 1Department of Hydrology and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, 85721, USA
  • 2Manila Observatory, Quezon City, 1108, Philippines
  • 3Department of Physics, School of Science and Engineering, Ateneo de Manila University, Quezon City, 1108, Philippines
  • 4Institute of Environmental Science and Meteorology, University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City, 1101, Philippines
  • 5Space Science and Engineering Center, University of Wisconsin - Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, 53706, USA
  • 6Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, 85721, USA

Abstract. Fireworks degrade air quality, reduce visibility, alter atmospheric chemistry, and cause short-term adverse health effects. However, there have not been any comprehensive physicochemical and optical measurements of fireworks and their associated impacts in a Southeast Asia megacity, where fireworks are a regular part of the culture. Size-resolved particulate matter (PM) measurements were made before, during, and after New Year 2019 at the Manila Observatory in Quezon City, Philippines, as part of the Cloud, Aerosol, and Monsoon Processes Philippines Experiment (CAMP2Ex). A High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) recorded a substantial increase in backscattered signal associated with high aerosol loading ~440 m above the surface during the peak of firework activities around 00:00 (local time). This was accompanied by PM2.5 concentrations peaking at 383.9 μg m−3. During the firework event, water-soluble ions and elements, which affect particle formation, growth, and fate, were mostly in the submicrometer diameter range. Total (> 0.056 µm) water-soluble bulk particle mass concentrations were enriched by 5.7 times during the fireworks relative to the background (i.e., average of before and after the firework). The water-soluble mass fraction of PM2.5 increased by 18.5 % above that of background values. Bulk particle hygroscopicity, kappa (κ), increased from 0.11 (background) to 0.18 (fireworks). Potassium and non-sea salt (nss) SO42− contributed the most (70.9 %) to the water-soluble mass, with their mass size distributions shifting from a smaller to a larger submicrometer mode during the firework event. On the other hand, mass size distributions for NO3, Cl, and Mg2+ (21.1 % mass contribution) shifted from a supermicrometer mode to a submicrometer mode. Being both uninfluenced by secondary aerosol formation and constituents of firework materials, a subset of species were identified as the best firework tracer species (Cu, Ba, Sr, K+, Al, and Pb). Although these species (excluding K+) only contributed 2.1 % of the total mass concentration of water-soluble ions and elements, they exhibited the highest enrichments (6.1 to 65.2) during the fireworks. Surface microscopy analysis confirmed the presence of potassium/chloride-rich cubic particles along with capsule-shaped particles in firework samples. The results of this study highlight how firework emissions change the physicochemical and optical properties of water-soluble particles (e.g., mass size distribution, composition, hygroscopicity, and aerosol backscatter), which subsequently alters the background aerosol's respirability, influence on surroundings, ability to uptake gases, and viability as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN).

Genevieve Rose Lorenzo et al.

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Genevieve Rose Lorenzo et al.

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An annual time series of weekly size-resolved aerosol properties in the megacity of Metro Manila, Philippines Connor Stahl, Melliza Templonuevo Cruz, Paola Angela Bañaga, Grace Betito, Rachel A. Braun, Mojtaba Azadi Aghdam, Maria Obiminda Cambaliza, Genevieve Rose Lorenzo, Alexander B. MacDonald, Preciosa Corazon Pabroa, John Robin Yee, James Bernard Simpas, and Armin Sorooshian https://doi.org/10.5067/Suborbital/CAMP2EX2018/DATA001

Genevieve Rose Lorenzo et al.

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Short summary
Firework emissions change the physicochemical and optical properties of water-soluble particles, which subsequently alters the background aerosol's respirability, influence on surroundings, ability to uptake gases, and viability as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). There was heavy aerosol loading due to fireworks in the boundary layer. The aerosol constituents were largely water-soluble and submicrometer in size due to both inorganic salts in firework materials and gas-to-particle conversion.
Firework emissions change the physicochemical and optical properties of water-soluble particles,...
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