Monitoring a wide range of atmospheric turbulence over the Antarctic continent is still tricky, while the atmospheric Richardson number (

The Richardson number (

Presently, monitoring a wide range of atmospheric turbulence over the Antarctic continent is tremendously difficult, but atmospheric

To carry out a detailed comparison of potential temperature and wind speed (on which

The radiosonde can measure meteorological parameters, which can estimate

Two vertical cross-sections for

The planetary boundary layer height (PBLH, within which the atmosphere is generally turbulent) can be estimated using a critical value
of

In Sect.

The five two-way interactive horizontal grids (d01, d02, d03, d05, and d06; information online at

Daily radiosounding measurements at McMurdo (MM) and the South Pole (SP) are available at the Antarctic Meteorological Research Center (AMRC;

Main technical specifications of the radiosonde RS41.

The radiosonde instrumentation used during this measurement period was the Vaisala RS41 (Technical data:

The AMPS can forecast meteorological parameters in four-dimensional space-time in Antarctica, which can be used for comparison with the radiosonde measurements. The AMPS grid system consisted of a series of nested domains with 60 vertical levels. This study used grid 2 fields (d02;
8

The

where

The development of atmospheric turbulence was shown to be tightly correlated with the

In the results of this study, the logarithm of

The AMPS forecasts are compared to radiosoundings from MM, SP, and DC to investigate the reliability of the AMPS forecasts over the Antarctic
continent. The radiosoundings and AMPS forecasts used for this comparison were obtained from March 2021 to February 2022. To offer a more convincing
result, data corresponding to the altitude at which radiosoundings reached less than five times a season were discarded. In addition, the extracted
AMPS forecasts used for comparison were from the nearest grid to the three sites, and the time difference between radiosoundings and AMPS forecasts
larger than 1.5

The seasonal median of potential temperature (

As in Fig.

The seasonal median difference of potential temperature (see the filled areas in Fig.

Statistical evaluations of the potential temperature (

Figure

To evaluate the performance of the AMPS in forecasting the possibility of triggering turbulence over the Antarctic continent, the

The seasonal median of

The polynomial curve fitting of near-ground median profiles of

Performance of the AMPS under different atmospheric conditions. Panels

The seasonal median profiles of

Two lines (marked by red lines) are used to create vertical cross-sections:

Quantitative analysis for the estimated

Table

Table

The near-ground atmosphere in Antarctica is an important turbulence source, and an analytical function for

Figure

The seasonal median of temperature, wind speed, and

As in Fig.

The results given in Sect.

Figures

The results of the

As a result of katabatic winds

The possible functional areas of some typical large-scale phenomena or local-scale dynamics over the Antarctic Plateau and the ocean surrounding it.

A strong polar vortex implies that the zonal winds are intense, and atmospheric turbulence is more prone to occur. The Antarctic polar vortex reaches
its maximum intensity in the winter–spring season

Cloud cooling refers to two kinds of cooling-induced turbulence in this study: cloud-top cooling (CTC) and below-cloud-base turbulence (BCT). The CTC
is contributed by radiative cooling, which could be one of the driving mechanisms of the mixed-layer turbulence

Boundary layer convection is generated by forcing from the ground; solar heating of the ground during sunny days causes thermals of warmer air to rise
and convection will form

The strength of the near-ground temperature inversion forecasted by the AMPS increases from the coast to the high interior, and its strength weakens
during polar summer; such a phenomenon has also been observed in previous studies

The development of orographic gravity waves (OGWs) is the interaction between near-surface wind and a mountain barrier

Trapped lee waves (TLWs) belong to OGWs. Specially, TLWs, as its name implies, tend to form on the lee side of mountains and turbulence may be
developed in the downstream

Inertia-gravity waves (IGWs) are influenced by the Coriolis effect (increasing with wind speed), and the frequency of IGWs is close to inertial
frequency. The IGWs and Kelvin–Helmholtz instability (which can be characterized by the

In addition, one can see the temporal evolution of

The

Temporal evolution of PBLH directly forecasted by the AMPS (red circles) and estimated by the height corresponding to

As in Fig.

The planetary boundary layer scheme of Polar WRF in the AMPS was the Mellor–Yamada–Janjić (MYJ;

Figures

The

To test the credibility of the critical value (i.e.,

We have examined the ability of the AMPS to forecast the atmospheric

From the analysis presented above, we deduce the following.

Comparisons of AMPS forecasts with radiosoundings from three representative sites (coast: McMurdo, flank: South Pole, summit: Dome C) show that
the forecasts can accurately describe the trend of atmospheric meteorological parameters above the Antarctic continent, as the

We proved that the AMPS forecasts can identify the main characteristics of atmospheric turbulence over the Antarctic continent in terms of both
space and time. The

The seasonal medians of the AMPS forecasts from two vertical cross-sections were presented (Figs.

The

The overall results show that the AMPS can forecast a realistic behavior of

The meteorological parameters measured by the radiosondes at McMurdo and South Pole that support the findings of this study are available at the Antarctic Meteorological Research Center (

The annual AMPS forecasts change related to the vertical cross-section through the South Pole and Dome C (Fig.

QY and XW planned the investigation; QY, XH, XW, and ZW analyzed the data; QY and YG wrote the original draft; QY finished the visualization; QY, XW, XH, XQ, and ZW performed the validation; XW, CQ, TL, XQ, and PW reviewed and edited the paper.

The contact author has declared that none of the authors has any competing interests.

Publisher's note: Copernicus Publications remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

The authors acknowledge the financial support of the National Natural Science Foundation of China, the Foundation of Key Laboratory of Science and Technology Innovation of Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Foundation of Advanced Laser Technology Laboratory of Anhui Province.

This research has been supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant nos. 91752103 and 41576185), the Foundation of Key Laboratory of Science and Technology Innovation of Chinese Academy of Sciences (grant no. CXJJ-21S028) and the Foundation of Advanced Laser Technology Laboratory of Anhui Province (grant no. AHL2021QN02).

This paper was edited by Ashu Dastoor and reviewed by three anonymous referees.